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Allies of World War I

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WWI-re
Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray.
Map Europe alliances 1914-en
European military alliances prior to the war.

The Allied Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the United States. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire), entered World War I in 1914, as a result of their Triple Entente alliance. Many other countries later joined the Allied side in the war (see below).

The United States declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated American neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram that was sent to Mexico.[1] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Britain, because it had not declared war on the Ottoman Empire like those two countries. Although Turkey severed relations with the United States, it did not declare war. The U.S. was not at war with some of the other Central Powers, such as the Kingdom of Bulgaria.[2] Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed for the first time under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenants General John Monash and Arthur Currie, who reported in turn to British generals.

In April 1918, operational control of all Allied forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch.

Main Allied countries Edit

Other states which had military participation:

States which had declared war, but had no military involvement:

Leaders Edit

Flag of Russia Russia

Flag of France France

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of Australia Dominion of Australia

File:Flag of Canada-1868-Red.svg Dominion of Canada

British Raj Red Ensign Indian Empire

Newfoundland Red Ensign Dominion of Newfoundland

South Africa Red Ensign Union of South Africa

Flag of Serbia (1882-1918) Serbia

Flag of Belgium Belgium

Flag of Bohemia Czechoslovakia

Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Italy

Flag of Romania Romania

US flag 48 stars United States

Flag of Japan - variant Japan

Personnel and casualties of the Allied powers Edit

File:WorldWarI-MilitaryDeaths-EntentePowers-Piechart.svg
Pie chart showing military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914-1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved, or the number of casualties. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Allied powers Mobilized personnel Killed in action Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia412,953[1]61,928[4] 152,171214,09952%
Belgium267,000[3]38,172[5] 44,68682,85831%
Canada628,964[1]64,944[6]149,732214,67634%
France8,410,000[3]1,397,800[7] 4,266,0005,663,80067%
Greece230,000[3]26,000[8]21,00047,00020%
India1,440,437[1]74,187[9]69,214143,40110%
Italy5,615,000[3]651,010[10]953,8861,604,89629%
Japan 800,000[3]415[11]9071,322<1%
Montenegro50,000[3]3,00010,00013,00026%
New Zealand128,525[1]18,050[12]41,31759,36746%
Newfoundland11,922[1]1,204[13]2,3143,51830%
Portugal100,000[3]7,222[14]13,75120,97321%
Romania750,000[3]250,000[15]120,000370,00049%
Russia12,000,000[3]1,811,000[16]4,950,000 6,761,00056%
Serbia707,343[3]275,000[17]133,148408,14858%
South Africa 136,070[1]9,463[18]12,02921,49216%
United Kingdom6,200,000[2]885,138[19]1,663,4352,548,57341%
United States4,355,000[3]116,708[20]205,690322,3987%
Total 42,243,2145,691,24112,809,28018,500,52144%


See also Edit

Footnotes Edit

  1. US Declaration of War
  2. Who Declared War and When
  3. first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  4. Australia casualties</br> Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85]-.</br> The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]-</br>Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919-21[5]-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead[1,237].
  5. Belgium casualties</br>Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85] Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." [1,352].
  6. Canada casualties</br>Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.[6,85] </br>The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]</br>Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919-21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths[5]-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead[1,237].
  7. France casualties</br>Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85]. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. [7,414]-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.[7,414]
  8. Greece casualties</br>Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing[8,339], The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease[6,160]
  9. India casualties</br>British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.</br> Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85].</br> The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]</br>Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919-21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead[5]. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead[1,237]
  10. Italy casualties</br>Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85]</br> Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data[9].
  11. War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army[10,111].
  12. New Zealand casualties</br>Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85].</br>The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]</br>Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919-21[5]. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead[1,237].
  13. Newfoundland casualties</br>Newfoundland was a Dominion at the time, and not part of Canada. The 1922 War Office report listed 1,204 Army war dead[1,237]
  14. Portugal casualties</br>Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW[1,354].
  15. Romania casualties</br>Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"[6,64]. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85].
  16. Russia casualties</br>Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85]. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.[6,46-57]
  17. Serbia casualties</br>Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85].The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis[6,62-64]</br>
  18. South Africa casualties</br>Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85]</br>The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]</br> Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919-21[15]. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead[1,237].
  19. UK and Crown Colonies casualties</br>Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[6,85].</br>The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[4]</br>Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919-21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths[5]. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK[1,237], 507 from "Other colonies"[1,237] and the Royal Navy (32,287)[1,339].</br> The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately [1,339]; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK[1,674-678].
  20. United States casualties</br>Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead [11,481].

References Edit

Bibliography Edit

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900-1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
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