|European Parliament |
|6th European Parliament|
|President||Hans-Gert Pöttering, EPP-ED |
since 16 January 2007
|Vice Presidents|| |
since 16 January 2007
|Leader of largest party||Joseph Daul, EPP-ED |
since 9 January 2007
|Leader of 2nd largest party||Martin Schulz, PES |
since 5 July 2004
|Political groups||EPP-ED (284) - dark blue|
PES (215) - red
ALDE (103) - yellow
UEN (44) - light blue
Greens – EFA (42) - green
EUL-NGL (41) - dark red
ID (24) - orange
Non-Inscrits (32) - grey
|Voting system||Proportional representation (List and STV)|
|Last election||10-13 June 2004 (Union wide)|
Late 2007 (New members)
|1st: Louise Weiss building, Strasbourg (F).|
2nd: Espace Léopold/Leopoldruimte, Brussels (B)
Secretariat: Luxembourg (L) and Brussels (B).
|UEN|| Brian Crowley|
|G-EFA|| Monica Frassoni|
|ID|| Nigel Farage|
|Non-Inscrits||MEPs without group||30||Source: European Parliament|
The European Parliament (Europarl or EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU). Together with the Council of the European Union (the Council), it forms the bicameral legislative branch of the Union's institutions and has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world. The Parliament and Council form the highest legislative body within the Union. However their powers as such are limited to the competencies conferred upon the European Community by member states. Hence the institution has little control over policy areas held by the states and within the other two of the three pillars of the European Union. The Parliament is composed of 785 MEPs (Member of the European Parliament), who serve the second largest democratic electorate in the world (after India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (342 million eligible voters in 2004).
It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. Although the European Parliament has legislative power that such bodies as those above do not possess, it does not have legislative initiative, as most national EU parliaments do However, it does have de facto capacity for legislative initiative (see Powers and functions below). While it is the "first institution" of the European Union (mentioned first in the treaties, having ceremonial precedence over all authority at European level), the Council has greater powers over legislation than the Parliament where codecision procedure (equal rights of amendment and rejection) does not apply. It has, however, had control over the EU budget (minus agriculture) since the 1970s and has a veto over the appointment of the European Commission.
The European Parliament has two meeting places, namely the Louise Weiss building in Strasbourg, France, which serves for twelve four-day plenary sessions per year and is the official seat, and the Espace Léopold (Template:Lang-nl) complex in Brussels, Belgium, the larger of the two, which serves for committee meetings, political groups and complementary plenary sessions. The cost of having all MEPs and their staff moving several times a year from one place to another is of concern to some. The Secretariat of the European Parliament, the Parliament's administrative body, is based in Luxembourg.
The President of the European Parliament (its speaker) is currently Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP), elected in January 2007. He presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED) and the Party of European Socialists (PES). The last Union-wide elections were the 2004 Parliamentary Elections, however Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 and elected their members in that year (see European Parliament election, 2007); the next union-wide parliamentary elections are in 2009 (see European Parliament election, 2009).
The Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the "Common Assembly" of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It was a consultative assembly of 78 parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states (see dual mandate), having no legislative powers. This change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester;
|“||For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a 'multi-lingual talking shop'. But this is no longer the case: the EP is now one of the most powerful legislatures in the world both in terms of its legislative and executive oversight powers.||”|
Its development since its foundation is testament to the evolution of the Union's structures without one clear "master plan". Some such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post said of the Union, "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU". Even the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, is a result of various agreements or lack of agreements.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration, it was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. In this the "Ad Hoc" Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped.
Despite this the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome. The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities (which had separate executives) and it renamed itself the "European Parliamentary Assembly". The three communities merged in 1967 and the body was renamed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas the Community's budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However the Council was required to agree a uniform voting system before hand, which it failed to do. The Parliament threatened to take the Council to the European Court of Justice leading to a compromise whereby the Council would agree to elections, but the issue of voting systems would be put off till a later date.
In 1979, its members were directly elected for the first time. This set it apart from similar institutions such as those of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe or Pan-African Parliament which are appointed. After that first election, the parliament held its first session on 11 July 1979, electing Simone Veil MEP as its President. Veil was also the first female President of the Parliament since it was formed as the Common Assembly.
As an elected body, the Parliament began to draft proposals addressing the functioning of the Union. For example in 1984, inspired by its previous work on the Political Community, it drafted the "draft Treaty establishing the European Union" (also known as the 'Spinelli Plan' after its rapporteur Altiero Spinelli MEP). Although it was not adopted, many ideas were later implemented by other treaties. Further more the Parliament began holding votes on proposed Commission Presidents from the 1980s, before it was given any formal right to veto.
Since the election the membership of the European Parliament has simply expanded whenever new nations have joined (the membership was also adjusted upwards in 1994 after German reunification). Following this the Treaty of Nice imposed a cap on the number of members to be elected, 732.
Like the other institutions, the Parliament's seat was not yet fixed. The provisional arrangements placed Parliament in Strasbourg, while the Commission and Council had their seats in Brussels. In 1985 the Parliament, wishing to be closer to these institutions, built a second chamber in Brussels and moved some of its work there despite protests from some states. A final agreement was eventually reached by the European Council in 1992. It stated the Parliament would retain its formal seat in Strasbourg, where twelve sessions a year would be held, but with all other parliamentary activity in Brussels. This two seat arrangement was contested by Parliament but was later enshrined in the Treaty of Amsterdam. To this day the institution's locations are a source of contention.
The Parliament had been gaining more powers from successive treaties, namely through the extension of codecision procedure, and in 1999, the Parliament forced the resignation of the Santer Commission. The Parliament had refused to approve the Community budget over allegations of fraud and mis-management in the Commission. The two main parties took on a government-opposition dynamic for the first time during the crisis which ended in the Commission resigning en masse, the first of any forced resignation, in the face of an impending censure from the Parliament.
In 2004, following the largest trans-national election in history, despite the European Council choosing a President from the largest political group (the EPP), the Parliament again exerted pressure on the Commission. During the Parliament's hearings of the proposed Commissioners MEPs raised doubts about some nominees with the Civil liberties committee rejecting Rocco Buttiglione from the post of Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security over his views on homosexuality. That was the first time the Parliament had ever voted against an incoming Commissioner and despite Barroso's insistence upon Buttiglione the Parliament forced Buttiglione to be withdrawn. A number of other Commissioners also had to be withdrawn or reassigned before Parliament allowed the Barroso Commission to take office.
In addition to the extension of codecision, the Parliament's democratic mandate has given it greater control over legislation against the other institutions. In voting on the Bolkestein directive in 2006, the Parliament voted by a large majority for over 400 amendments that changed the fundamental principle of the law. The Financial Times described it in the following terms:
|“||The European parliament has suddenly come into its own. It marks another shift in power between the three central EU institutions. Last week's vote suggests that the directly elected MEPs, in spite of their multitude of ideological, national and historical allegiances, have started to coalesce as a serious and effective EU institution, just as enlargement has greatly complicated negotiations inside both the Council and Commission.||”|
In 2007, for the first time, Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini included Parliament in talks on the second Schengen Information System even though MEPs only needed to be consulted on parts of the package. After that experiment, Frattini indicated he would like to include Parliament in all justice and criminal matters, informally pre-empting the new powers they could gain as part of the Treaty of Lisbon.
Powers and functions Edit
The Parliament and Council are essentially two chambers in the bicameral legislative branch of the European Union, with legislative power being officially distributed equally between both chambers. However there are some differences from national legislatures; for example, neither the Parliament nor the Council have the power of legislative initiative (except for the fact that the Council has the power in some intergovernmental matters). In Community matters, this is a power uniquely reserved for the European Commission (the executive). Meaning that while Parliament can amend and reject legislation, to make a proposal for legislation, it needs the Commission to draft a bill before anything can become law. However, the value of such a power is questioned, noting that only 15% of such initiatives in national parliaments become law due to the lack of executive support. Yet it has been argued by President Hans-Gert Pöttering that as the Parliament does have the right to ask the Commission to draft such legislation, and as the Commission is following Parliament's proposals more and more Parliament does have a de facto right of legislative initiative.
The Parliament also has a great deal of indirect influence, through non-binding resolutions and committee hearings, as a "pan-European soapbox" with the ear of thousands of Brussels-based journalists. There is also an indirect effect on foreign policy; the Parliament must approve all development grants, including those overseas. For example, the support for post-war Iraq reconstruction, or incentives for the cessation of Iranian nuclear development, must be supported by the Parliament. Parliamentary support was also required for the transatlantic passenger data-sharing deal with the United States.
With each new treaty, the powers of the Parliament have expanded. Its powers have been primarily defined through the Union's legislative procedures. The method which has slowly become the dominant procedure (about three-quarters of policy areas) is the Codecision procedure, where powers are essentially equal between Parliament and Council. Codecision provides an equal footing between the two bodies. Under the procedure, the Commission presents a proposal to Parliament and the Council. They then send amendments to the Council which can either adopt the text with those amendments or send back a "common position". That proposal may either be approved or further amendments may be tabled by the Parliament. If the Council does not approve these, then a "Conciliation Committee" is formed. The Committee is composed of the Council members plus an equal number of MEPs who seek to agree a common position. Once a position is agreed, it has to be approved by Parliament, again by an absolute majority. This is also aided by Parliament's mandate as the only directly democratic institution, which has given it leeway to have greater control over legislation than other institutions, for example over its changes to the Bolkestein directive in 2006.
Other procedures include: Cooperation, meaning the Council can overrule the Parliament if it is unanimous; Consultation, which require just consultation of the Parliament; and Assent procedure, where the Parliament has a veto. The Commission and Council, or just Commission, can also act completely independently of the Parliament, but the use of these procedures are very limited. The procedure also depends upon which type of institutional act is being used. The strongest act is a regulation, an act or law which is directly applicable in its entirety. Then there are directives which bind members to certain goals which they must achieve. They do this through their own laws and hence have room to manoeuvre in deciding upon them. A decision is an instrument which is focused at a particular person/group and is directly applicable. Institutions may also issue recommendations and opinions which are merely non-binding, declarations. There is a further document which does not follow normal procedures, this is a "written declaration" which is similar to an early day motion used in the Westminster system. It is a document proposed by up to five MEPs on a matter within the EU's activities used to launch a debate on that subject. Having been posted outside the entrance to the hemicycle, members can sign the declaration and if a majority do so it is forwarded to the President and announced to the plenary before being forwarded to the other institutions and formally noted in the minutes.
The legislative branch officially holds the Union's budgetary authority, powers gained through the Budgetary Treaties of the 1970s. The EU's budget is divided into compulsory and non-compulsory spending. Compulsory spending is that resulting from EU treaties (including agriculture) and international agreements; the rest is non-compulsory. While the Council has the last word on compulsory spending, the Parliament has the last word on non-compulsory spending.
The institutions draw up budget estimates and the Commission consolidates them into a draft budget. Both the Council and the Parliament can amend the budget with the Parliament adopting or rejecting the budget at its second reading. The signature of the Parliament's president is required before the budget becomes law.
The Parliament is also responsible for discharging the implementation of previous budgets, on the basis of the annual report of the European Court of Auditors. It has refused to approve the budget only twice, in 1984 and in 1998. On the latter occasion it led to the resignation of the Santer Commission.
Control of the executiveEdit
Unlike most EU states, which usually operate parliamentary systems, there is a separation of powers between the executive and legislative which makes the European Parliament more akin to the United States Congress than an EU state legislature. The President of the European Commission is proposed by the Council (in practice by the European Council) and that proposal has to be approved by the Parliament (by a simple majority), essentially giving the Parliament a veto, but not a right to propose, the head of the executive. Following the approval of the Commission President, the members of the Commission are proposed by the President in accord with the member-states. Each Commissioner comes before a relevant parliamentary committee hearing covering the proposed portfolio. They are then, as a body, approved or rejected by the Parliament. In practice, the Parliament has never voted against a President or his Commission, but it did seem likely when the Barroso Commission was put forward. The resulting pressure forced the proposal to be withdrawn and changed to be more acceptable to parliament. That pressure was seen as an important sign by some of the evolving nature of the Parliament and its ability to make the Commission accountable, rather than being a rubber stamp for candidates. Furthermore, in voting on the Commission, MEPs also voted along party lines, rather than national lines, despite frequent pressure from national governments on their MEPs. This cohesion and willingness to use the Parliament's power ensured greater attention from national leaders, other institutions and the public—who previously gave the lowest ever turnout for the Parliament's elections.
The Parliament also has the power to censure the Commission if they have a two-thirds majority which will force the resignation of the entire Commission from office. As with approval, this power has never been used but it was threatened to the Santer Commission, who subsequently resigned of their own accord. There are a few other controls, such as: the requirement of Commission to submit reports to the Parliament and answer questions from MEPs; the requirement of the President-in-office of the European Council to present their programme at the start of their presidency; the right of MEPs to make proposals for legislation and policy to the Commission and Council; and the right to question members of those institutions (e.g. "Commission Question Time" every Tuesday). At present, MEPs may ask a question on any topic whatsoever, but in July 2008 MEPs voted to limit questions to those within the EU's mandate and ban offensive or personal questions.
The Parliament also has other powers of general supervision, mainly granted by the Maastricht Treaty. The Parliament has the power to set up a Committee of Inquiry, for example over mad cow disease or CIA detention flights—the former led to the creation of the European veterinary agency. The Parliament can call other institutions to answer questions and if necessary to take them to court if they break EU law or treaties. Further more it has powers over the appointment of the members of the Court of Auditors and the president and executive board of the European Central Bank. The ECB president is also obliged to present an annual report to the parliament.
The European Ombudsman is elected by the Parliament, who deals with public complaints against all institutions. Petitions can also be brought forward by any EU citizen on a matter within the EU's sphere of activities. The Committee on Petitions hears cases, some 1500 each year, sometimes presented by the citizen themselves at the Parliament. While the Parliament attempts to resolve the issue as a mediator they do resort to legal proceedings if it is necessary to resolve the citizens dispute.
- Main article: Member of the European Parliament
Template:National apportionment of MEPs The parliamentarians are known in English as Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). They are elected every 5 years by universal adult suffrage and sit according to political allegiance; about a third are women. Prior to 1979 they were appointed by their national parliaments.
As states are allocated seats according to population, the total number of MEPs should be 732; however, since 1 January 2007 there are 785 MEPs. This is due to the accession of Romania and Bulgaria, as the allocation of seats does not take into account members that join mid-term. Under the existing rules the number of members would be reduced to 736 following the 2009 election however the rules are due to be changed under the Treaty of Lisbon. Instead, there would be 751 members (however, as the President cannot vote while in the chair there would only be 750 voting members at any one time). In addition, the maximum number of seats allocated to a state would be lowered to ninety-six, from the current ninety-nine, and the minimum number of seats would be raised to six, from the current five. These seats are distributed according to "degressive proportionality", meaning that the larger the state, the more citizens that are represented per MEP. It is intended that the new system, including revising the seating well in advance of elections, can avoid political horse trading when the numbers have to be revised.
At present, members receive the same salary as members of their national parliament. However as of 2009 a new members statute will come into force which gives all members an equal monthly pay of 7,000 euro each, subject to a community tax and can also be taxed nationally. MEPs would retire at 63 and receive the whole of their pension from the Parliament. Travelling expenses would also be given based on actual cost rather than a flat rate as is the case now. In addition to their pay, members are granted a number of privileges and immunities. To ensure their free movement to and from the Parliament, they are accorded by their own states the facilities accorded to senior officials travelling abroad and by other state governments the facilities of visiting foreign representatives. When in their own state they have all the immunities accorded to national parliamentarians, and in other states they have immunity from detention and legal proceedings. However immunity cannot be claimed when a member is found committing a criminal offence and the Parliament also has the right to strip a member of their immunity.
- Main article: Political groups of the European Parliament
Template:Political groups of the European Parliament MEPs in Parliament are organised into seven different parliamentary groups, including over thirty non-attached members known as non-inscrits. The two largest groups are the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED) and the Party of European Socialists (PES). These two groups have dominated the Parliament for much of its life, continuously holding between 50 and 70 percent of the seats together. No single group has ever held a majority in Parliament. As a result of being broad alliances of national parties, European groups parties are very decentralised and hence have more in common with parties in the United States than EU states.
Groups are often based around a single European political party such as the socialist group. However they can, like the liberal group, include more than one European party as well as national parties and independents. For a group to be recognised, it needs 20 MEPs from six different countries (this will rise to 25 MEPs from seven different countries from June 2009). Once recognised groups receive financial subsidies from the parliament and guaranteed seats on Committees, creating an incentive for the formation of groups. However some controversy occurred with the establishment of the Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) due to its ideology; the members of the group are far-right, so there were concerns about public funds going towards such a group. There were attempts to change the rules to block the formation of ITS, however that never came to fruition. They were, however, blocked from gaining leading positions on committees—a right that is meant to be afforded to all parties. When this group engaged in infighting, causing the withdrawal of some members, its size fell below the recognisable limit causing its collapse.
Given that the Parliament does not form the government in the traditional sense of a Parliamentary system, its politics have developed along more consensual lines rather than majority rule of competing parties and coalitions. Indeed for much of its life it has been dominated by a grand coalition of the People's Party and Socialist Party. The two major parties tend to co-operate to find a compromise between their two groups leading to proposals endorsed by huge majorities. However there have been some occasions where real party politics have emerged, for example over the resignation of the Santer Commission;
When the initial allegations against the Commission emerged, they were directed primarily against Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín, both socialist members. When the parliament was considering refusing to discharge the Community budget, President Jacques Santer stated that a no vote would be tantamount to a vote of no confidence. PES supported the Commission and saw the issue as an attempt by the EPP to discredit their party ahead of the 1999 elections. PES leader, Pauline Green MEP, attempted a vote of confidence and the EPP put forward counter motions. During this period the two parties took on similar roles to a government-opposition dynamic, with PES supporting the executive and EPP renouncing its previous coalition support and voting it down. Politicisation such as this has been increasing, in 2007 Simon Hix of the London School of Economics noted that;
|“||Our work also shows that politics in the European Parliament is becoming increasingly based around party and ideology. Voting is increasingly split along left-right lines, and the cohesion of the party groups has risen dramatically, particularly in the fourth and fifth parliaments. So there are likely to be policy implications here too.||”|
During the fifth term, 1999 to 2004, there was a break in the grand coalition resulting in a centre-right coalition between the Liberal and People's parties. This was reflected in the Presidency of the Parliament with the terms being shared between the EPP and the ELDR, rather than the EPP and PES. In the following term the liberal group grew to hold 88 seats, the largest number of seats held by any third party in Parliament.
- Main article: Elections in the European Union
Elections have taken place, directly in every member-state, every five years since 1979. As of 2004 there have been six. Occasionally, when a member joins mid-term, a by-election will be held to elect their members. This has happened four times, the last time was when Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 (see below). Elections take place across several days according to local custom and, aside from having to be proportional, the electoral system is chosen by the member-state. This includes allocation of sub-national constituencies; while most members have a national list, some, like the UK and France, divide their allocation between regions. Seats are allocated to member-states according to their population, with no state having more than 99, but no fewer than 5, in order to maintain proportionality.
The most recent Union-wide elections to the European Parliament were the European elections of 2004, held in June of that year. They were the largest simultaneous transnational elections ever held anywhere in the world, since nearly 400 million citizens were eligible to vote. The proportion of MEPs elected in 2004 who were female was 30.2%; in 1979 it was just 16.5%. The next Union-wide elections will be in 2009. There are a number of proposals to "dress up" the next elections to attract greater public attention to them. These include most notably the idea of linking them more closely to the Commission presidency. This would be by having political parties running with candidates for the job, so the largest party would essentially be forming the government, as in the parliamentary system of government. This was attempted in 2004, however only the European Green Party, which was the first true pan-European party to be established with a common campaign, proposed a candidate for the post of President: Daniel Cohn-Bendit. Meanwhile, the closest any other party had come was when the People's Party mentioned four or five people they'd like to be President. It is hoped such changes would add legitimacy and counter the falling turnout which has dropped consistently every year since the first election, and from 1999 it has been below 50%. In 2007 both Bulgaria and Romania elected their MEPs in by-elections, having joined at the beginning of 2007. The Bulgarian and Romanian elections saw two of the lowest turnouts for European elections, just 28.6% and 28.3% respectively.
Each year the activities of the Parliament cycle between committee weeks where reports are discussed in committees and interparliamentary delegations meet, political group weeks for members to discuss work within their political groups and session weeks where members spend 3½ days in Strasbourg for part-sessions. In addition six 2-day part-sessions are organised in Brussels throughout the year. Four weeks are allocated as constituency week to allow members to do exclusively constituency work. Finally there are no meetings planned during the summer weeks. The Parliament has the power to meet without being convened by another authority. Its meetings are partly controlled by the treaties but are otherwise up to Parliament according to its own "Rules of Procedure" (the regulations governing the parliament).
During sessions, members may speak after being called on by the President, with a time limit of one minute. Members of the Council or Commission may also attend and speak in debates. Partly due to the need for translation, and the politics of consensus in the chamber, debates tend to be calmer and more polite than, say, the Westminster system. Voting is conducted primarily by a show of hands, that may be checked on request by electronic voting. Votes of MEPs are not recorded in either case however, that only occurs when there is a roll-call ballot. That is when each MEP in turn is called by name, in alphabetical order, to state their support or opposition: it is only used for certain important votes or when a political group of approximately one fifth of all MEPs requests it, but the number of roll-call votes has increased with time. Votes can also be a completely secret ballot (for example when the President is elected). All recorded votes, along with minutes and legislation, are recorded in the Official Journal of the European Union and can be accessed online.
Members are arranged in a hemicycle according to their political groups who are ordered mainly by left to right, but some smaller groups are placed towards the outer ring of the Parliament. All desks are equipped with microphones, headphones for translation and electronic voting equipment. The leaders of the groups sit on the front benches at the centre, and in the very centre is a podium for guest speakers. The remaining half of the circular chamber is primarily composed of the raised area where the President and staff sit. Further benches are provided between the sides of this area and the MEPs, these are taken up by the Council on the far left and the Commission on the far right. Both the Brussels and Strasbourg hemicycle roughly follow this layout with only minor differences. With access to the chamber limited, entrance is controlled by ushers who aid MEPs in the chamber (for example in delivering documents). The ushers also act as a form of police in enforcing the President, for example in ejecting an MEP who is disrupting the session (although this is rare). The first head of protocol in the Parliament was French, so many of the duties in the Parliament are based on the French model first developed following the French Revolution. The 180 ushers are highly visible in the Parliament, dressed in black tails and wearing a silver chain, and are recruited in the same manner as the European civil service. The President is allocated a personal usher.
President and organisationEdit
- Main article: President of the European Parliament
The President, currently Hans-Gert Pöttering MEP of the EPP, is essentially the speaker of the Parliament. He or she presides over the plenary when it is in session and the President's signature is required for all acts adopted by co-decision, including the EU budget. The President is also responsible for representing the Parliament externally, including in legal matters, and for the application of the rules of procedure. He or she is elected for two-and-a-half-year terms, meaning two elections per parliamentary term.
In most countries, the protocol of the head of state comes before all others, however in the EU the Parliament is listed as the first institution, and hence the protocol of its President comes before any other European, or national, protocol. The gifts given to numerous visiting dignitaries depends upon the President. President Josep Borrell MEP of Spain gave his counterparts a crystal cup created by an artist from Barcelona which had engraved upon it parts of the Charter of Fundamental Rights among other things.
A number of notable figures have been President of the Parliament and its predecessors. The first President was Paul-Henri Spaak MEP, one of the founding fathers of the Union. Other founding fathers include Alcide de Gasperi MEP and Robert Schuman MEP. The two female Presidents were Simone Veil MEP in 1979 (first President of the elected Parliament) and Nicole Fontaine MEP in 1999, both Frenchwomen.
During the election of a President, the plenary is presided over by the oldest member of the Parliament. In 2004 and 2007 this was Giovanni Berlinguer MEP. While the oldest member is in the chair, they hold all the powers of the President, but the only business that may be addressed is the election of the President.
Below the President, there are 14 Vice-Presidents who chair debates when the President is not in the chamber. There are a number of other bodies and posts responsible for the running of parliament besides these speakers. The two main bodies are the Bureau, which is responsible for budgetary and administration issues, and the Conference of Presidents which is a governing body composed of the presidents of each of the parliament's political groups. Looking after the financial and administrative interests of members are six Quaestors.
Committees and delegationsEdit
- Main article: Committees of the European Parliament
The Parliament has 20 Standing Committees consisting of 28 to 86 MEPs each (reflecting the political makeup of the whole Parliament) including a chair, a bureau and secretariat. They meet twice a month in public to draw up, amend to adopt legislative proposals and reports to be presented to the plenary. The rapporteurs for a committee are supposed to present the view of the committee, although notably this has not always been the case. In the events leading to the resignation of the Santer Commission, the rapporteur went against the Budgetary Control Committee's narrow vote to discharge the budget, and urged the Parliament to reject it.
Committees can also set up sub-committees (e.g. the Subcommittee on Human Rights) and temporary committees to deal with a specific topic (e.g. on extraordinary rendition). The chairs of the Committees co-ordinate their work through the "Conference of Committee Chairmen". When co-decision was introduced it increased the Parliaments powers in a number of areas, but most notably those covered by the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. Previously this committee was considered by MEPs as a "Cinderella committee", however as it gained a new importance, it became more professional and rigorous attracting more and more attention to its work.
The nature of the committees differ from their national counterparts as, although smaller in comparison to those of the United States Congress, the European Parliament's committees are unusually large by European standards with between eight and twelve dedicated members of staff and three to four support staff. Considerable administration, archives and research resources are also at the disposal of the whole Parliament when needed.
Delegations of the Parliament are formed in a similar manner and are responsible for relations with Parliaments outside the EU. There are 34 delegations made up of around 15 MEPs, chairpersons of the delegations also cooperate in a conference like the committee chairs do. They include "Interparliamentary delegations" (maintain relations with Parliament outside the EU), "joint parliamentary committees" (maintaining relations with parliaments of states which are candidates or associates of the EU), the delegation to the ACP EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly and the delegation to the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly. MEPs also participate in other international activities such as the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly, the Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue and through election observation in third countries.
Translation and interpretingEdit
Speakers in the European Parliament are entitled to speak in any of the EU's 23 official languages, ranging from English and French to Maltese and Swedish. Simultaneous interpreting is offered in all plenary sessions, and all final texts of legislation are translated. With twenty-three languages, the European Parliament is the most multilingual parliament in the world and the biggest employer of interpreters in the world (employing 350 full time and 400 free-lancers when there is higher demand). Citizens may also address the Parliament in Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician.
Usually a language is translated from a foreign tongue into a translator's native tongue. Due to the large number of languages, some being minor ones, since 1995 translation is sometimes done the opposite way, out of a translator's native tongue (the "retour" system). In addition, a speech in a minor language may be translated via a third language for lack of interpreters ("relay" interpreting) —for example, when translating Estonian into Maltese. Interpreters need to be proficient in two other Union languages besides their native language. Due to the complexity of the issues, translation is not word for word. Instead, interpreters have to convey the political meaning of a speech, regardless of their own views. This requires detailed understanding of the politics and terms of the Parliament, involving a great deal of preparation beforehand (e.g. reading the documents in question). Difficulty can often arise when MEPs use colourful language, jokes and word play or speak too fast.
While some see speaking their native language as an important part of their identity, and can speak more fluently in debates, the translation and the cost of it has been criticised by some. A 2006 report by Alexander Stubb MEP highlighted that by only using English, French and German costs could be reduced from €118,000 per day (for 21 languages then—Romanian and Bulgarian having not yet been included) to €8,900 per day. Although many see the ideal single language as being English due to its widespread usage, there is a campaign to make French the single tongue for all legal texts, due to the view that it is more clear and precise for legal purposes. Although this would not directly affect translation in the plenary, it would shift the balance towards French when discussing draft legislation.
The Parliament is based in three different cities with numerous buildings. A protocol attached to the Treaty of Amsterdam requires that 12 plenary sessions be held in Strasbourg (none in August but two in September), which is the Parliament's official seat, while extra part sessions as well as committee meetings are held in Brussels. Luxembourg hosts the Secretariat of the European Parliament. The European Parliament is the only assembly in the world with more than one meeting place and also one of the few that cannot decide its own location.
The Strasbourg seat is seen as a symbol of reconciliation between France and Germany, the Strasbourg region having been fought over by the two countries in the past. However it is questioned over the cost of having two seats for the parliament. While Strasbourg is the official seat, and sits alongside the Council of Europe (with which the "mutual cooperation" is being continuously "fostered"), Brussels is home to nearly all other major EU institutions, with the majority of Parliament's work already being carried out there. Therefore despite Strasbourg being the main seat, it is the one most questioned, although some do believe Strasbourg should be the single capital.
Critics have described the two-seat arrangement as a "travelling circus", and there is a strong movement to establish Brussels as the sole seat. This is due to the fact that the other political institutions (the Commission, Council and European Council) are located there, and hence Brussels is treated as the 'capital' of the EU. This movement has received strong backing through numerous figures, including the Commission First-Vice President who stated that "something that was once a very positive symbol of the EU reuniting France and Germany has now become a negative symbol—of wasting money, bureaucracy and the insanity of the Brussels institutions". The Green party has also noted the environmental cost in a study led by Jean Lambert MEP and Caroline Lucas MEP; in addition to the extra 200 million euro spent on the extra seat, there are over 20,268 tonnes of additional carbon dioxide, undermining any environmental stance of the institution and the Union. The campaign is further backed by a million-strong online petition started by Cecilia Malmström MEP. In 2006 there were allegations of irregularity in the charges made by the city of Strasbourg on buildings the Parliament rented which harmed the city's image further. A poll of MEPs also found 89% of the respondents (39%) wanting a single seat, and 81% preferring Brussels. Another, more academic, survey found 68% support. However, as Parliament's seat is fixed by the treaties, it can only be changed by the Council unanimously, meaning it could be vetoed by a single country: notably, France. French President Nicolas Sarkozy has stated that its seat is "non-negotiable", having no intention of surrendering the French based seat.
Future of the ParliamentEdit
The Treaty of Lisbon, currently in stalled ratification, largely retains the reforms outlined in the rejected Constitutional Treaty. Overall, powers would be increased. For example, nearly all policy areas would fall under co-decision procedure (now called the "ordinary legislative procedure") meaning that the Parliament would have practically equal powers to those of the Council (now officially the Council of Ministers). In the remaining minority of areas in which the powers remain unequal, the Council must consult the Parliament and/or seek its approval on the legislation. The Parliament also gains greater powers over the entirety of the EU budget, not just non-compulsory expenditure, through the ordinary legislative procedure. In terms of the composition of the Parliament there would be little change, however the minimum number of seats would be increased from 5 to 6 and the maximum number would be reduced from 99 to 96. There would also be basic rules on the distribution of seats in the Parliament, rather than them being negotiated at each enlargement. Decisions about the composition of the Parliament are currently made by the Council, this would remain so but the decision would be made based on a proposal from the Parliament itself.
The European Council would be bound to take into account the latest elections when proposing the Commission President, something that they willingly did after the 2004 election. As currently, the Parliament's consent is needed for the President to take office, however the Treaty of Lisbon now uses the word "elect" rather than "approve" to refer to this procedure. This is an area however in which the Council of Ministers plays no part. It will remain to be seen whether calling it an election will spur political groups to use their power and mandate to propose their own candidate rather than accept that of the European Council, similar to the situation in constitutional monarchies where the head of state has the power to choose the head of government but is de facto limited into accepting the candidate of the victorious party in parliament. There have been suggestions that the parliament's political groups may propose their own candidates before the 2009 election. No major party proposed a candidate in 2004 with the fractious nature of the European-level parties being, in part, why a single candidate has not been proposed. However there are plans to strengthen the political parties before the elections and the European Green Party, the first to have a common campaign, did manage to put forward a candidate. In 2007, Franco Frattini indicated he would like to act as though the treaty was already in force, in respects to the Parliament's powers over justice and criminal matters, in order to inject more democracy and ensure the Parliament had over sight on forthcoming legislation Frattini did not wish to delay until 2009.
In addition to the institutional reforms brought by the Treaty of Lisbon, in 2007 the President set up the Special working group on parliamentary reform to improve the efficiency and image of the Parliament. Some ideas include livening up the plenary sessions and a State of the Union debate. One of the group's key reform ideas, extra debates on topical issues, was rejected by MEPs causing liberal leader Graham Watson MEP to withdraw from the reform group. However MEPs did back a proposal for greater use of the European symbols, following their rejection in the Treaty of Lisbon. It was suggested the Parliament take the avant-garde in using the symbols as it had done in adopting the flag in 1983, which was three years before the Communities as a whole. An interim report was presented in September 2007 and proposed cutting down time allocated for guest speakers and non-legislative documents. In 2006, 92 "own initiative" reports (commenting rather than legislating) were tables and 22% of debating time was spent debating such reports, while only 18% was spent on legislative bills. The group is due to produce a final report in July 2008, and put the recommendations into practice by the 2009 elections however Watson has stated that he doubts the left-right coalition in Parliament can pass the proposals due to opposition from more conservative members. Other members such as the co-chair of ID, Jens-Peter Bonde MEP, had wanted more radical proposals. Bonde did however vote for the report, stating that "it is psychologically important to show that we want to become a more political parliament."
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Professor Farrell: "The EP is now one of the most powerful legislatures in the world"". European Parliament. 2007-06-18. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20070615IPR07837. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "Europe-topics in Europe’s media - The debate about the European public sphere: a meta-analysis of media content analyses" (PDF). University of Mannheim. http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/projekte/typo3/site/fileadmin/research%20groups/3/Amsterdam%20conference/Amsterdam_Machill_Beiler_Fischer.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
- ↑ "European Union elections: Voting Systems - IVU". IVU Traffic Technologies AG. http://www.ivu.de/index.cfm?articleid=420&year=2004. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
- ↑ "European federalists launch appeal to the European citizens: go vote and take part in the shaping of the future of Europe". Union of European Federalists. http://www.federaleurope.org/index.php?id=3510. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "Parliament's powers and procedures". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&id=46. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Williams, Matt (2008-06-24). "Pöttering defends parliament's role at EU summits". The Parliament Magazine. http://www.theparliament.com/latestnews/news-article/newsarticle/poettering-defends-parliaments-role-at-eu-summits/. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 "Parliament's Protocol Service". European Parliament. 2006-07-28. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20060728FCS09980&secondRef=0. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 "Consolidated versions of the treaty on European Union and of the treaty establishing the European Community" (PDF). Eur-lex. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/ce321/ce32120061229en00010331.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Wallström, Margot (2006-05-24). "My blog: Denmark, Latvia, Strasbourg". European Commission. http://blogs.ec.europa.eu/wallstrom/denmark_latvia_strasbourg/. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 "European Parliament". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=3998. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "EPP-ED Chronology—1951–1960". European People's Party. http://www.epp-ed.eu/group/en/chronology02.asp. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ Reid, Tom (2004). The United States of Europe. London: Penguin Books. pp. 272. ISBN 0-141-02317-1.
- ↑ Ad Hoc Assembly, Information and Official Documents of the Constitutional Committee, October 1952 to April 1953 from the Archive of European Integration. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
- ↑ "Composition of the European Parliament". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=3999. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Power of the purse of the European Parliament". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=4009. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Hoskyns, Catherine; Michael Newman (2000). Democratizing the European Union: Issues for the twenty-first Century (Perspectives on Democratization. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719056666.
- ↑ "Framework". Council of Europe. http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?Link=/AboutUs/APCE_framework.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "Overview of the Pan-African Parliament". Pan-African Parliament. http://www.pan-africanparliament.org/AboutPAP_Overview.aspx. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "The history of the European Parliament". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/eplive/expert/shotlist_page/20070314SHL04223/default_fr.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "The European Parliament's proposals". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=6536. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 European Parliament Website. "Oversight over the Commission and Council". http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+PRESS+BI-20041022-1+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
- ↑ "The seats of the institutions of the European Union". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=20822. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
- ↑ "Power to legislate of the European Parliament". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=4008. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- ↑ Topan, Angelina (2002-09-30). "The resignation of the Santer-Commission: the impact of 'trust' and 'reputation'" (PDF). European Integration Online Papers. http://eiop.or.at/eiop/pdf/2002-014.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Ringer, Nils F. (February 2003). "The Santer Commission Resignation Crisis" (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. http://aei.pitt.edu/2919/01/156.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Bowley, Graham (2004-10-18). "Buttiglione affair highlights evolving role of Parliament : Questions arise on democracy at the EU". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/10/18/brussels_ed3_.php. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
- ↑ Tobais, Troll (2004-11-02). "“We have to democratise procedures”". Café Babel. http://www.cafebabel.com/en/article.asp?T=T&Id=2620. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 "How the European parliament got serious". Financial Times. 2006-02-23. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/56b6d760-a412-11da-83cc-0000779e2340.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Beunderman, Mark (2007-11-09). "Frattini seeks to apply new EU treaty rules before 2009". EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/9/25117. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
- ↑ "Fact Sheets 1.3.8 The Commission". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/1_3_8_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 Kreppel, Amie (2006). "Understanding the European Parliament from a Federalist Perspective: The Legislatures of the USA and EU Compared" (PDF). Center for European Studies, University of Florida. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kreppel/COMFEDFINAL.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-26.
- ↑ Schnabel, Rockwell; Francis Rocca (2005). The Next Superpower?: the Rise of Europe and its Challenge to the United States. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 111. ISBN 978-0742545489.
- ↑ "Decision-making in the European Union". Europa (web portal). http://www.europa.eu/institutions/decision-making/index_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
- ↑ "Community legal instruments". Europa (web portal). http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/community_legal_instruments_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
- ↑ "Written declarations". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/plenary/writtenDecl.do. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 "Budgetary power". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?id=46&pageRank=5&language=EN. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 "How is the budget decided?". European Parliament. http://ec.europa.eu/budget/budget_glance/how_decided_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Budgetary control: 1996 discharge raises issue of confidence in the Commission". Europa (web portal). 1999. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/election/bilan/en/pf1901en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 "Oversight over the Commission and Council". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?id=46&pageRank=9&language=EN. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ Murray, Alasdair (2004). "Three cheers for EU democracy". Centre for European Reform. http://www.cer.org.uk/articles/39_murray.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
- ↑ Mahony, Honor (2008-07-09). "New rules to make it harder for MEPs to form political groups". International Herald Tribune. http://euobserver.com/9/26468. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ "Maastricht Treaty 15 years on: birth of the "European Union"". European Parliament. 2007-02-07. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/story_page/008-2784-036-02-06-901-20070206STO02783-2007-05-02-2007/default_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 "Supervisory power". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?id=46&pageRank=8&language=EN. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 101: Appointment of the Members of the Court of Auditors". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070101+RULE-101+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
- ↑ Rickards, Mark (2007-11-03). "MEPs get taste of people power". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7075573.stm. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 "Composition of the European Parliament". European NAvigator. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=3999. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Members". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?id=45&pageRank=3. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
- ↑ "Parliament all set for enlargement". Europa (web portal). http://www.europarl.europa.eu/highlights/en/302.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
- ↑ Goldirova, Renata (2007-10-19). "EU agrees new 'Treaty of Lisbon'". EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/9/25001. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
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- ↑ "European Parliament increases threshold to form a political group". Europa (web portal). 2008-07-09. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/expert/infopress_page/009-33698-189-07-28-901-20080708IPR33697-07-07-2008-2008-false/default_en.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ Brunwasser, Matthew (2007-01-14). "Bulgaria and Romania bolster far right profile in EU Parliament". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/14/news/right.php. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
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- ↑ "Interview: Graham Watson, leader of group of Liberal Democrat MEPs". Euractiv. 2004-06-15. http://www.euractiv.com/en/elections/interview-graham-watson-leader-group-liberal-democrat-meps/article-128543. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
- ↑ "European Parliament elects new president". BBC News. 1999-07-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/398892.stm. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
- ↑ "The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is born". Graham Watson MEP website. 2004-07-14. http://www.grahamwatsonmep.org/news/000017/the_alliance_of_liberals_and_democrats_for_europe_is_born.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
- ↑ "The European Parliament: electoral procedures". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/facts/1_3_4_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ Spongenberg, Helena (2007-02-26). "EU wants to dress up 2009 elections on TV". EU Observer. http://www.euobserver.com/9/23566. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
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- ↑ "European Greens Found European Greens". Deutsche Welle. 2004-02-23. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,1119463,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-30.
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- ↑ "Bulgaria votes for European Parliament legislators". International Herald Tribune. 2007-05-20. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/05/20/africa/sofia.php. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
- ↑ "New GERB party narrowly wins Bulgaria's first European Parliament election". Southeast European Times. 2007-05-21. http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/newsbriefs/2007/05/21/nb-01. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
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- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 127: Convening of Parliament". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070606+RULE-127+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 141: Calling speakers and content of speeches". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070101+RULE-141+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 142: Allocation of speaking time". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070101+RULE-142+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ Yeomans, Chris (2004-11-02). "Democracy 1, Autocracy 0?". Café Babel. http://www.cafebabel.com/en/article.asp?T=A&Id=976. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 164: Disputes on voting". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070101+RULE-164+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "How do MEPs vote?". European Parliament. 2006-06-28. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20060628STO09319&secondRef=0. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
- ↑ Hix &al (see further reading below), §1.4 ("The dataset: roll-call votes in the European Parliament"), p.29–30.
- ↑ "The different types of document available on Europarl". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/guide/search/docsearch_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
- ↑ "Brussels seating plan" (PDF). European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sce/data/fast_access/doc//PLAN_BRX_30%20JAN_2008.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "The European Parliament Ushers". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20051017FCS01532&secondRef=0. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
- ↑ "Duties of the President". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20040720+RULE-019+DOC+XML+V0//EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Functions". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/president/defaulten_mac.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
- ↑ "Former E.P. Presidents". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/president/defaulten.htm?former. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
- ↑ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 11: Oldest member". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20070101+RULE-011+DOC+XML+V0//EN&navigationBar=YES. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 87.0 87.1 87.2 "How the Parliament is Organised". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&id=45. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "European Parliament: In Detail". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/expert.do?language=EN. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
- ↑ "Press Release: Irish language arrives in European Parliament". European Parliament Irish Office. 2007-01-11. http://www.europarl.ie/news_press_release_2_2007.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 90.0 90.1 90.2 "The European Parliament's Interpreters.". European Parliament. 2006-04-12. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20060403FCS06935&secondRef=0. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
- ↑ "The European Parliament allows the written communication of citizens in Basques in Basque, Catalan and Galician.". Ciemen. 2006. http://www.ciemen.org/mercator/notidetail.cfm?IDA=897&lg=gb. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
- ↑ "In European Parliament, debate—in 21 languages—can be pricey". Christian Science Monitor. 2006-09-12. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0912/p05s01-woeu.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ "Campaign to make French sole legal language in EU". International Herald Tribune. 2007-02-07. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/02/07/europe/EU-GEN-EU-French.php. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 Alvaro, Alexander (2006-07-06). "Europe's strangest migrants". Café Babel. http://www.cafebabel.com/en/article.asp?T=A&Id=1906. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
- ↑ "The Council of Europe and the European Union sign an agreement to foster mutual cooperation". Council of Europe. 2007-05-23. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?Ref=PR331(2007)&Language=lanEnglish&Ver=original&BackColorInternet=F5CA75&BackColorIntranet=F5CA75&BackColorLogged=A9BACE&ShowBanner=no&Target=_self. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ Wheatly, Paul (2006-10-02). "The two-seat parliament farce must end". Café Babel. http://www.cafebabel.com/en/article.asp?T=A&Id=2047. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ 97.0 97.1 "Greens condemn EU parliament's 'traveling circus'". 4ecotips. 2007-04-26. http://www.4ecotips.com/eco/article_show.php?aid=1222&id=280. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ Malmström, Cecilia. "OneSeat.eu". http://www.oneseat.eu/. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
- ↑ Kroeger, Alix (2006-04-27). "EU and Strasbourg in rent row". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4952228.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "Euro MPs want to scrap Strasbourg base: poll". EU Business. 2007-06-13. http://www.eubusiness.com/news_live/1181757615.41. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
- ↑ Banks, Martin (2007-05-24). "Sarkozy slated over Strasbourg seat". EU Politix: The Parliament. http://www.eupolitix.com/EN/News/200705/8216d9d5-0c44-46e2-a6d8-6166c30e812f.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
- ↑ European Council (2007-06-22). "Brussels European Council 21/22 June 2007: Presidency Conclusions" (PDF). Council of the European Union. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/94932.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
- ↑ 103.0 103.1 "The Union's institutions: The European Parliament". Europa (web portal). http://europa.eu/scadplus/constitution/parliament_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
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- ↑ "Leadership of the EU". Federal Union. http://www.federalunion.org.uk/europe/democracyleadership.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
- ↑ 106.0 106.1 "Improving the public perception and efficiency of the work of the European Parliament - mandate for a working group on reform of the Parliament". European Parliament. 2007-02-15. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=EN&type=IM-PRESS&reference=20070215IPR03201. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
- ↑ Kubosova, Lucia (2007-07-12). "MEPs turn down modernising reform". EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/9/24472. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
- ↑ 108.0 108.1 Kubosova, Lucia (2007-09-20). "MEPs want to see fewer heads of state in plenary". EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/9/24801. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
- ↑ Beunderman, Mark (2007-07-11). "MEPs defy member states on EU symbols". EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/9/24464. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
- ↑ "The European Flag". Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/T/E/Com/About_Coe/flag.asp. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
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