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Battle of New Georgia
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
Battle of New Georgia
Men of the United States 25th Infantry Division push through the jungle along the Zieta Trail on August 12, 1943
Date June 20, 1943August 25, 1943
Location New Georgia, Solomon Islands
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
US flag 48 stars United States
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of the United Kingdom Colony of Fiji
Flag of Japan - variant Empire of Japan
Commanders
US flag 48 stars William Halsey Flag of Japan - variant Minoru Sasaki
Strength
32,000 10,500
Casualties and losses
1,195 killed,
93 aircraft destroyed[1]
1,671 killed,
358 aircraft destroyed[2]

Template:Campaignbox New Georgia

Template:Campaignbox Solomons

The New Georgia Campaign was a series of battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II. It was part of Operation Cartwheel, the Allied grand strategy in the South Pacific. The campaign took place in the New Georgia group of islands, in the central Solomon Islands from June 20, 1943, to August 25 1943, between Allied forces and the Empire of Japan.

BackgroundEdit

The Japanese had captured New Georgia in 1942 and built an airbase at Munda Point which began operations in December 1942 to support the Guadalcanal offensives. As it became clear at the end of 1942 that they could not hold Guadalcanal the Japanese commanders guessed that the Allies would move towards the Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain, and that the central Solomon Islands were logical steps on the way.

The Imperial Japanese Army believed that holding the Solomon Islands would be ultimately unsuccessful and that it would be better to wait for an Allied attack on Bougainville which would be much less costly to supply and reinforce. The Imperial Japanese Navy preferred to delay the Allied advance for as long as possible by maintaining a distant line of defence. With no effective central command, the two services implemented their own plans: the navy assumed responsibility for the defence of the central Solomons and the army for the northern Solomons.

By early 1943, some Allied leaders, notably the supreme commander in the neighboring South West Pacific Area command, General Douglas MacArthur, had wanted to focus on capturing Rabaul, but Japanese strength there and lack of landing craft meant that such an operation was not practical in 1943. Instead, on the initiative of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, a plan known as Operation Cartwheel was developed, which proposed to envelop and cut off Rabaul without capturing it, by simultaneous offensives in the Territory of New Guinea and northwards through the Solomon Islands.

In early 1943, Japanese defenses were prepared against possible Allied landings on New Georgia, Kolombangara and Santa Isabel. By June 1943 there were 10,500 troops on New Georgia and 9,000 on Kolombangara well dug in and waiting for an Allied attack.

LandingsEdit

The first Allied landings were on 20 June 1943 by the United States 4th Marine Raider Battalion at Segi Point on New Georgia. There was no resistance, and airfield construction began there on 30 June. From 12 July planes from Segi Point provided close air support for the battle.

On 30 June, the 4th Raiders captured Viru Harbor.

The main landing was made on the same date at Rendova Island, west of Munda. Munda point, the Japanese airbase on New Georgia Island, was the main objective of the assault on the island. This base was not taken until August 5, 1943.

The Japanese facilities at Bairoko Harbor, 13 km (8 miles) north of Munda, were secured by American forces on 23 August, after weeks of difficult jungle operations. Fighting continued on islands west of New Georgia until October 1943.


Notes Edit

  1. Altobello, Into the Shadows, p. 354.
  2. Altobello, Into the Shadows, p. 354.

ReferencesEdit

  • Alexander, Joseph H. (2000). Edson's Raiders: The 1st Marine Raider Battalion in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-020-7. 
  • Altobello, Brian (2000). Into the Shadows Furious. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-717-6. 
  • Bergerud, Eric M. (1997). Touched with Fire: The Land War in the South Pacific. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-024696-7. 
  • Feldt, Eric Augustus (1946 (original text), 1991 (this edition)). The Coastwatchers. Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140149260. 
  • Hammel, Eric M. (2008). New Georgia, Bougainville, and Cape Gloucester: The U.S. Marines in World War II A Pictorial Tribute. Pacifica Press. ISBN 0760332967. 
  • Hammel, Eric M. (1999). Munda Trail: The New Georgia Campaign, June-August 1943. Pacifica Press. ISBN 0-935553-38-X. 
  • Hayashi, Saburo (1959). Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Marine Corps. Association. ASIN B000ID3YRK. 
  • Horton, D. C. (1970). Fire Over the Islands. ISBN 0589070894. 
  • Lord, Walter (1977 (Reissue 2006)). Lonely Vigil; Coastwatchers of the Solomons. New York: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-466-3. 
  • McGee, William L. (2002). The Solomons Campaigns, 1942-1943: From Guadalcanal to Bougainville--Pacific War Turning Point, Volume 2 (Amphibious Operations in the South Pacific in WWII). BMC Publications. ISBN 0-9701678-7-3. 
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1958). Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier, vol. 6 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Castle Books. ISBN 0785813071. 
  • Peatross, Oscar F.; John P. McCarthy and John Clayborne (editors) (1995). Bless 'em All: The Raider Marines of World War II. Review. ISBN 0965232506. 
  • Radike, Floyd W. (2003). Across the Dark Islands: The War in the Pacific. ISBN 0891417745. 
  • Rhoades, F. A. (1982). A Diary of a Coastwatcher in the Solomons. Fredericksburg, Texas, U.S.A.: Admiral Nimitz Foundation. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L.; Dr. Duncan Anderson (consultant editor) (2005). Japanese Army in World War II: The South Pacific and New Guinea, 1942-43. Oxford and New York: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-870-7. 

External links Edit

fr:Bataille de la Nouvelle-Géorgie ja:ニュージョージア島の戦い

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