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Pride is, depending upon context, either a high sense of the worth of one's self or one's own or a pleasure taken in the contemplation of these things. One definition of pride in the first sense comes from Augustine: "the love of one's own excellence."  In this sense, the opposite of pride is humility.
Pride is sometimes viewed as excessive or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophies such as Aristotle's consider pride a profound virtue, most world religions consider it a sin. The Roman Catholic Church lists pride as the most grave of the seven deadly sins.
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, proud comes from late Old English prut, probably from Old French prud "brave, valiant" (11th century) (which became preux in French), from late Latin term prodis "useful", which is compared with the Latin prodesse "be of use". The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud", like the French knights preux.
When viewed as a virtue, pride in one's appearance and abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often termed vanity or vainglory. Pride can also manifest itself as a high opinion of one's nation (national pride) and ethnicity (ethnic pride).
Judaism, using pride in the sense of hubris or arrogance, denounces it - the phrase "Pride goes before a fall" is a paraphrase of a passage from the book of Proverbs, in the Old Testament. Many more verses of the Tanakh/Old Testament speak of pride and arrogance. "Blessed is that man that makes the Lord his trust, and looks not to the proud, nor to those that turn aside to lies." (Psalm 40:4) "Talk no more exceeding proudly, nor let arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed." (I Sam. 2:3)
In Christianity, pride (Latin, superbia) is seen as the excessive love of one's own worth usually by attempting to remove oneself from subjection to God or valid authorities. A scriptural reference to pride can be found in the Psalms: "In his pride the wicked does not seek Him; in all his thoughts there is no room for God." (Psalm 10:4). Pride is sometimes referred to as the greatest of the seven deadly sins. To that effect, Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote that "inordinate self-love is the cause of every sin." This sentiment was also expressed by Pope Gregory I. Curiously Aquinas, who viewed pride as sinful "excessive self love", nevertheless endorsed the possibility of a virtuous kind of pride when he translated Aristotle's virtuous pride (Greek: megalopsuchia) as magninimitas, which in latin means "greatness of soul"; yet Aquinas believed that the greatness that magnanimitas required was beyond the reach of almost all men and that, like pride, it opposed the Christian virtue of humility.
In Islam, pride is forbidden as well. According to a narration from Muhammad, he said: "He in whose heart there is as much as an atom of arrogance will not enter paradise," and a man remarked: "A man likes his garment to be beautiful and his sandals to be beautiful." Then Muhammad replied: "God, Most High, is beautiful and likes beauty; arrogance is disdaining what is true and despising people." (Sahih Muslim).
Ancient Greek philosophyEdit
Aristotle identified pride (megalopsuchia, variously translated as proper pride, greatness of soul and magnanimity) as the crown of the virtues, distinguishing it from vanity, temperance, and humility, thus:
- Now the man is thought to be proud who thinks himself worthy of great things, being worthy of them; for he who does so beyond his deserts is a fool, but no virtuous man is foolish or silly. The proud man, then, is the man we have described. For he who is worthy of little and thinks himself worthy of little is temperate, but not proud; for pride implies greatness, as beauty implies a goodsized body, and little people may be neat and well-proportioned but cannot be beautiful. 
He concludes then that
- Pride, then, seems to be a sort of crown of the virtues; for it makes them greater, and it is not found without them. Therefore it is hard to be truly proud; for it is impossible without nobility and goodness of character. 
By contrast, Aristotle defined hubris as follows:
- to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to you, nor because anything has happened to you, but merely for your own gratification. Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; this is revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: men think that by ill-treating others they make their own superiority the greater.
Thus, although many religions may not recognize the difference, for Aristotle and many philosophers hubris is altogether an entirely different thing from pride.
Nietzsche saw pride as an example of a previous, master set of morals that had been replaced with slave moralities. In this, pride was good, because it acknowledges the good and the noble, rejecting the weak and insipid. Without pride, Nietzsche argued, we will remain subservient.
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Hubris is a sense of self exaggerated pride. There are two main types of pride that relate to hubris: alpha pride and beta pride.
Alpha Pride (Pride within self) is described as a behavior that reflects less emotional expression. Alpha pride concerns feelings of inward gratification rather than the outward expressions that more concern that of beta pride. Beta Pride (Pride in behavior) is described as a behavior that contributes to hubris negatively. Beta pride in contrast to alpha pride is more of an emotional expression. Emotional expressions are often intended as communicative acts addressed to another person rather than direct reflections of an underlying mental state. Several theories are related to the relationship of beta pride and the unconscious feelings of detachment/unconcern.
Pride is "a pleasant, sometimes exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive self-evaluation" (Lewis, 2002). The standard view of pride was that it results from satisfaction with meeting the personal goals set by oneself. Most research on pride attempts to distinguish the positive aspects of pride and the negative. Pride involves exhilarated pleasure and a feeling of accomplishment. Pride is related to "more positive behaviors and outcomes in the area where the individual is proud" (Weiner, 1985). Pride is generally associated with positive social behaviors such as helping others and outward promotion. According to Bagozzi et al., pride can have the positive benefits of enhancing creativity, productivity, and altruism. Gestures that demonstrate pride can involve a lifting of the chin, smiles, or arms on hips to demonstrate victory.
Hubris, by contrast, involves an arrogant tone and satisfaction in oneself in general. Hubris seems to be associated with more intra-individual negative outcomes. Hubris is related to expressions of aggression and hostility (Tangney, 1999). Hubris is not necessarily associated with high self-esteem, as one might expect. But with highly fluctuating or variable self-esteem (Rhodwalt, et al.) Excessive feelings of hubris have a tendency of creating conflict and sometimes terminating close relationships. Hubris is considered one of the few emotions without some positive functions. Though this is easily arguable, Hubris is essentially self-confidence, and confiding in oneself may not be as 'negative' as some say. Nevertheless, examples of the evil of hubris are regularly used to inculcate people with selfless values--"Hitler had a lot of hubris", etc.
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In Germany, "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in 2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows, as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of support across the nation. By the time the semi-final against Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is seen to have been a great success for Germany as a nation. Many Germans still are not sure about if it is good to find a way to "healthy" pride again that also exists in other countries or if this would be a negative development.
Ethnic and racial prideEdit
Template:Mainarticle Asian pride in modern slang refers mostly to those of East Asian descent, though it can include any one of Asian descent. Asian pride was originally fragmented, as Asian nations have had long conflicts with each other, examples are the old Japanese and Chinese religious beliefs of their individual superiority. Asian pride emerged prominently during European colonialism. At one time, Europeans owned 85% of the world's land through colonialism, resulting anti-Western feelings among Asian nations. Today, some Asians still look upon European involvement in their affairs with suspicion. In contrast, Asian empires are prominent and are proudly remembered by adherents to Asian Pride. An example is the Mongol Empire, which was the largest contiguous empire in history, occupying most of Asia and reaching as far as Europe. Another empire is Imperial Japan, the symbols of which are widespread in modern culture and franchises, especially the Rising Sun Flag, one of the main symbols of Asian, specifically Japanese, pride.
Template:Mainarticle Black pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States to raise awareness for a black racial identity. The slogan has been used by African Americans (especially of sub-Saharan African origin) to denote a feeling of self-respect, celebrating one's heritage, and being proud of one's personal worth. Black pride as a national movement is closely linked with the developments of the American Civil Rights Movement, during which noted figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, A. Philip Randolph, Stokely Carmichael, and others protested the conditions of the United States' segregated society, and lobbied for better treatment for people of the Black race. Roy Innis has sought to enhance and build on the black pride movement of the mid-1960’s, he and a Congress of Racial Equality delegation toured seven African countries in 1971. Curtis Mayfield's "We're a Winner" became a virtual anthem of the black power and black pride movements.
The concept of black power See also permeated into the work of popular musicians at the time. The Impressions's "We're a Winner", written by their lead singer Curtis Mayfield, became a virtual anthem of the black power and black pride movements, as did James Brown's "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud", Collin Carlone's "Life As a 'Boro Black Boy", and, unwittingly, Martha & the Vandellas' "Dancing in the Street". In addition to Black America, the Black Pride Movement was very prevalent in "“Afro-Brazil"". http://video.aol.com/video-detail/black-pride-brazil/349833279. , especially throughout their poorer population. A local and global recognition of this movement has been demonstrated throughout Brazilian funk. Brazilian Funk’s origin reflects Brazilian Black resistance and today appeals to a larger regional cultural identity. Ethnomusicologist George Yúdice’s states that youth were engaging black culture mediated by a U.S. culture industry met with many arguments against their susceptibility to cultural colonization. Although it borrows some ingredients from a form of Black American musical resistance hip hop, its style still remains unique to the Brazil (specifically in Rio and São Paulo).
Template:Mainarticle White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States to agitate for a white European racial identity and is closely aligned with white supremacy, white separatism, and other extreme manifestations of white racism. Organizations advocating white pride are collectively referred to as the white pride movement. White pride activists claim that white pride is equivalent to "black pride" and similar terms that express no more than ethnic self-affirmation.
In the United States it is more often acceptable to be proud of one's ancestry as long as they are not "white". See Whiteness studies#Criticisms Institutions of higher learning regularly have "Black History" or some other ethnic group class, while in the past similar "white" classes/groups have met with protest.
- Main article: Gay pride
Gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. It is often shortened to just Pride. LGBT pride advocates work for equal "rights and benefits" for LGBT people. The movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual preference and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered.
The word pride is used in this case an antonym for shame, which has been used to control and oppress LGBT persons throughout history. Pride in this sense is an affirmation of ones self and the community as a whole. The modern "pride" movement began after the Stonewall riots of the late 1960s.
- Main article: Vanity
In conventional parlance, vanity sometimes is used in a positive sense to refer to a rational concern for one's personal appearance, attractiveness and dress and is thus not the same as pride. However, it also refers to an excessive or irrational belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness in the eyes of others and may in so far be compared to pride. The term Vanity originates from the Latin word vanitas meaning emptiness, untruthfulness, futility, foolishness and empty pride. Here empty pride means a fake pride, in the sense of vainglory, unjustified by one's own achievements and actions, but sought by pretense and appeals to superficial characteristics.
In many religions, vanity is considered a form of self-idolatry, in which one rejects God for the sake of one's own image, and thereby becomes divorced from the graces of God. The stories of Lucifer and Narcissus (who gave us the term narcissism), and others, attend to a pernicious aspect of vanity. In Western art, vanity was often symbolized by a peacock, and in Biblical terms, by the Whore of Babylon. In secular allegory, vanity was considered one of the minor vices. During the Renaissance, vanity was invariably represented as a naked woman, sometimes seated or reclining on a couch. She attends to her hair with comb and mirror. The mirror is sometimes held by a demon or a putto. Other symbols of vanity include jewels, gold coins, a purse, and often by the figure of death himself.
Often we find an inscription on a scroll that reads Omnia Vanitas ("All is Vanity"), a quote from the Latin translation of the Book of Ecclesiastes. Although that phrase, itself depicted in a type of still life, vanitas, originally referred not to obsession with one's appearance, but to the ultimate fruitlessness of man's efforts in this world, the phrase summarizes the complete preoccupation of the subject of the picture.
"The artist invites us to pay lip-service to condemning her," writes Edwin Mullins, "while offering us full permission to drool over her. She admires herself in the glass, while we treat the picture that purports to incriminate her as another kind of glass—a window—through which we peer and secretly desire her." The theme of the recumbent woman often merged artistically with the non-allegorical one of a reclining Venus.
In his table of the Seven Deadly Sins, Hieronymus Bosch depicts a bourgeois woman admiring herself in a mirror held up by a devil. Behind her is an open jewelry box. A painting attributed to Nicolas Tournier, which hangs in the Ashmolean Museum, is An Allegory of Justice and Vanity. A young woman holds a balance, symbolizing justice; she does not look at the mirror or the skull on the table before her. Vermeer's famous painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is sometimes believed to depict the sin of vanity, as the young girl has adorned herself before a glass without further positive allegorical attributes.  All is Vanity, by Charles Allan Gilbert (1873-1929), carries on this theme. An optical illusion, the painting depicts what appears to be a large grinning skull. Upon closer examination, it reveals itself to be a young woman gazing at her reflection in the mirror. Such artistic works served to warn viewers of the ephemeral nature of youthful beauty, as well as the brevity of human life and the inevitability of death.
The most common literary term for pride is hubris(sometimes spelled hybris; Greek: ὕβρις).
In Ancient Greece, instances of pride were termed hubris because of the added connotation that pride was a crime against the gods and would result in fatal retribution. The word was also used to describe those who considered themselves more important than the gods themselves. Hubris against the gods is often attributed as a character flaw of the heroes in Greek tragedy, and the cause of the "nemesis", or destruction, which befalls these characters. However, this represents only a small proportion of occurrences of hubris in Greek literature, and for the most part hubris refers to infractions by mortals against other mortals. Therefore, it is now generally agreed that the Greeks did not generally think of hubris as a religious matter, still less that it was normally punished by the gods. The ancient Greek concept of hubris extended to what would today be termed assault and battery.
Achilles and his treatment of Hector's corpse in Homer's Iliad demonstrates hubris. Similarly, Creon commits hubris in refusing to bury Polynices in Sophocles' Antigone. Another example is in the tragedy Agamemnon, by Aeschylus. Agamemnon initially rejects the hubris of walking on the fine purple tapestry, an act which is suggested by Clytemnestra, in hopes of bringing his ruin. This act may be seen as a desecration of a divinely woven tapestry, as a general flouting of the strictures imposed by the gods, or simply as an act of extreme pride and lack of humility before the gods, tempting them to retribution. One other example is that of Oedipus. In Sophocles' Oedipus the King, while on the road to Thebes, Oedipus meets King Laius of Thebes who is unknown to him as his biological father. Oedipus kills King Laius in a dispute over which of them has the right of way, thereby fulfilling the prophecy of the oracle Loxias that Oedipus is destined to murder his own father.
Odysseus' ten year journey home was the result of hubris: after blinding the Cyclops, he mockingly declared his name to the monster as he escaped. This allowed the Cyclops to call upon his father Poseidon for help and curse him.
Victor in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein exudes hubris in order to become a great scientist, but is eventually regretting this previous desire. Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's play Dr. Faustus exudes hubris, all the way until his final minutes of life. In his book The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power the British politician David Owen argues that President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair developed a Hubristic Syndrome while in power. In particular their handling of the Iraq War showed their hubristic tendencies.
- ↑ "Est autem superbia amor proprie excellentie, et fuit initium peccati superbia."
- ↑ Article from Free Online Dictionary, accessed 9 Nov. 2008
- ↑ Delany, J. (1911). Pride. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12405a.htm
- ↑ Template:CathEncy
- ↑ Online Library of Liberty - QUESTION CLXII.: OF PRIDE. - Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 2 (Summa Theologica - Secunda Secundae Pt.2)
- ↑ The Ethics of Aquinas By Stephen J. Pope (Google Books)
- ↑ The Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle, James Alexander, Kerr Thomson, Hugh Tredennick, Jonathan Barnes translators
- ↑ Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3; also available here Sacred Texts - Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and here alternate translation at Perseus
- ↑ Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3
- ↑ Understanding Philosophy for AS Level AQA, by Christopher Hamilton (Google Books)
- ↑ Aristotle Rhetoric 1378b (Greek text and English translation available at the Perseus Project).
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Langguth, Gerd. German Foreign Affairs Review. "Dawn of the 'Pacific' Century?" 1996. June 30, 2007. 
- ↑ Yúdice, George. "The Funkification of Rio." In Microphone Fiends, 193-220. London: Routledge, 1994. /
- ↑ Dobratz & Shanks-Meile 2001
- ↑ "Pride celebrated worldwide". www.pridesource.com. http://www.pridesource.com/rssarticle.shtml?article=26004. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
- ↑ "GAY PRIDE IN EUROPE LOOKS GLOBALLY". direland.typepad.com. http://direland.typepad.com/direland/2007/07/gay-pride-in-eu.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
- ↑ "Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Equality -an Issue for us All". www.ucu.org.uk. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:xE6eFqA2mfkJ:www.ucu.org.uk/media/docs/s/t/lgbteqguide_1.doc+Gay+pride+believes+the+history+and+diversity+of+Lesbian,+Gay,+Bisexual,+and+Transgender+people+is+important&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=14&gl=us. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
- ↑ "Gay and Lesbian History Month". www.bates.ctc.edu. http://www.bates.ctc.edu/studentservices/Diversity/pdf/June%202007%20Word.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
- ↑ Words Latin-English Dictionary;Perseus Word Lookup
- ↑ James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), 318.
- ↑ Edwin Mullins, The Painted Witch: How Western Artists Have Viewed the Sexuality of Women (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1985), 62-3.
- ↑ MacDowell (1976) p. 22.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pride|
- Cairns, Douglas L. "Hybris, Dishonour, and Thinking Big." Journal of Hellenic Studies 116 (1996) 1-32.
- Fisher, Nick (1992). Hybris: a study in the values of honour and shame in Ancient Greece. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips. A book-length discussion of the meaning and implications of hybristic behavior in ancient Greece.
- MacDowell, Douglas. "Hybris in Athens." Greece and Rome 23 (1976) 14-31.
- Owen, David (2007) The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power Politico's, Methuen Publishing Ltd.
- Essential Vermeer
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.ar:فخر ca:Orgull cs:Pýcha da:Hovmod de:Stolz es:Soberbia eo:Fiero fr:Orgueil hr:Ponos he:גאווה la:Superbia lt:Puikybė new:अहङ्कार ja:傲慢 no:Hovmod pt:Soberba ru:Гордость scn:Arrucanza (orgogghiu) simple:Pride sk:Márnomyseľnosť sv:Högmod tl:Kapalaluan uk:Гордість