|Republic of Somalia
|Anthem: Soomaaliyeey Toosoow
Somalia, Wake Up
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Somali, Arabic|
|-||Prime Minister||Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke|
|Independence||from Britain and Italy|
|-||Date||26 June and 1 July 1960|
|-||Total|| 637,661 km2 (42nd)
246,201 sq mi
|-||2008 estimate||9,558,666 (85th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$5.575 billion (153rd)|
|-||Per capita||$600 (222nd)|
|HDI (2009)||N/A (low) (Not Ranked)|
|Currency||Somali shilling (
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.so (currently not operating)|
|1||The World Factbook|
|3||Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic|
Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.
In antiquity, Somalia was an important center for commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Its sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense, myrrh and spices, items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Myceneans and Babylonians with whom the Somali people traded. According to most scholars, Somalia is also where the ancient Kingdom of Punt was situated. The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharoanic Egypt during the times of Pharoah Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidical structures, temples and ancient houses of dressed stone littered around Somalia are said to date from this period. In the classical era, several ancient city-states such as Opone, Mosyllon and Malao that competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the wealthy Indo-Greco-Roman trade also flourished in Somalia.
The birth of Islam on the opposite side of Somalia's Red sea coast meant that Somali merchants, sailors and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the Berberi civilization. The city of Mogadishu came to be known as the city of Islam, and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries. In the middle ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuuraan State, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Sultanate of Adal, whose general Ahmed Gurey was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Geledian Sultanate, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf. In the late 19th century after the Berlin conference had ended, European empires sailed with their armies to the Horn of Africa. The Imperial clouds wavering over Somalia alarmed the Dervish leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and began one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.
Somalia was never formally colonized. The Dervish State successfully repulsed the British empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region. As a result of its fame in the Middle east and Europe, the Dervish state was recognized as an ally by the Ottoman Empire and the German empire, and remained throughout World War I the only independent Muslim power on the continent. After a quarter of a century holding the British at bay, the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 when Britain for the first time in Africa used aeroplanes when it bombed the Dervish capital of Taleh. As a result of this bombardment, former Dervish territories were turned into a protectorate of Britain. Italy similary faced the same opposition from Somali Sultans and armies and did not acquire full control of parts of modern Somalia until the Fascist era in late 1927. This occupation lasted till 1941 and was replaced by a British military administration. Northern Somalia would remain a protectorate while southern Somalia became a trusteeship. The Union of the two regions in 1960 formed the Somali Democratic Republic.
Due to its ancient brotherly ties with the Arab world, Somalia was accepted in 1974 as a member of the Arab League. To strengthen its relationship with the rest of the African continent, Somalia joined other African nations when it founded the African Union, and began to support the ANC in South Africa against the apartheid regime and the Eritrean secessionists in Ethiopia during the Eritrean War of Independence. A Muslim country, Somalia is one of the founding members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and is also a member of the UN and NAM. Despite suffering from civil strife and instability, Somalia has also managed to sustain a free market economy which, according to the UN, outperforms those of many other countries in Africa.
- Main article: History of Somalia
Somalia has been inhabited by man since the Paleaelithic period. Cave paintings dating back as far as 9000 BC have been found in northern Somalia. The most famous of these is the Laas Geel complex, which contains some of the earliest known rock art on the African continent. During the Stone age, the Doian culture and the Hargeisan culture flourished here with their respective industries and factories.
The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemetaries in Somalia dating back to 4th millennium BC. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in northern Somalia are said to be the most important link in evidence of the universality in palaeolithic times between the East and the West
Antiquity & the Classical eraEdit
Ancient pyramidical structures, tombs, ruined cities and stone walls such as the Wargaade Wall littered in Somalia are evidence of an ancient sophisticated civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula. The findings of archaeological excavations and research in Somalia show that this ancient civilization enjoyed a lucrative trading relationship with Ancient Egypt and Mycenean Greece since at least the second millenium BC, which supports the view of Somalia being the ancient Kingdom of Punt. The Puntites "traded not only in their own produce of incense, ebony and short-horned cattle, but also in goods from other neighbouring regions, including gold, ivory and animal skins." According to the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahri, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati.
Ancient Somalis domesticated the camel somewhere between the third millenium and second millenium BC from where it spread to Ancient Egypt and North Africa. In the classical period, the city states of Mossylon, Opone, Malao, Mundus and Tabae in Somalia developed a lucrative trade network connecting with merchants from Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire. They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab merchants barred Indian merchants from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula because of the nearby Roman presence. However, they continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, which was free from any Roman threat or spies. The reason for barring Indian ships from entering the wealthy Arabian port cities was to protect and hide the exploitative trade practices of the Somali and Arab merchants in the extremely lucrative ancient Red Sea-Mediterranean Sea commerce. The Indian merchants for centuries brought large quantities of cinnamon from Ceylon and the Far East to Somalia and Arabia. This is said to have been the best kept secret of the Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world. The Romans and Greeks believed the source of cinnamon to have been the Somali peninsula but in reality, the highly valued product was brought to Somalia by way of Indian ships. Through Somali and Arab intermediaries Indian/Chinese cinnamon, it was also exported for far higher prices to North Africa, the Near East and Europe, which made the cinnamon trade a very profitable revenue maker, especially for the Somali merchants through whose hands the large quantities were shipped across the ancient sea and land routes.
Birth of Islam & the Middle AgesEdit
History of Islam in the Horn of Africa is as old as the religion itself. The early persecuted Muslims fled to the Axumite port city of Zeila in Modern Somalia to seek protection from the Quraish at the court of the Axumite Emperor in modern Ethiopia. Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have settled in several parts of the Horn of Africa to promote the religion. The victory of the Muslims over the Quraish in the 7th century had a significant impact on Somalia's merchants and sailors, as their Arab trading partners had now all adopted Islam and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea came under the sway of the Muslim Caliphs. Through commerce, Islam spread amongst the Somali population in the coastal cities of Somalia. Instability in the Arabian peninsula saw several migrations of Arab families to Somalia's coastal cities, who then contributed another significant element to the growing popularity of Islam in the Somali peninsula.Mogadishu became the center of Islam on the East African coast, and Somali merchants established a colony in Mozambique to extract gold from the Monomopatan mines in Sofala. In northern Somalia, Adal was in its early stages a small trading community established by the newly-converted Horn African Muslim merchants, who were predominantly Somali according to Arab and Somali chronicles. The century between 1150 and 1250 marked a decisive turn in the role of Islam in Somali history. Yaqut Al-Hamawi and later ibn Said noted that the Berbers (Somalis) were a prosperous Muslim nation during that period. The Adal Sultanate was now a center of a commercial empire stretching from Cape Guardafui to Hadiya. The Adalites then came under the influence of the expanding Horn African Kingdom of Ifat, and prospered under its patronage. The capital of the Ifat was Zeila, situated in in northern present-day Somalia, from where the Ifat army marched to conquer the ancient Kingdom of Shoa in 1270. This conquest ignited a rivalry for supremacy between the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Ifatites that resulted in several devastating wars and ultimately ended in a Solomonic victory over the Kingdom of Ifat after the death of the popular Sultan Sa'ad ad-Din II in Zeila by Dawit II. Sa'ad ad-Din II family was subsequently given safehaven at the court of the King of Yemen, where his sons regrouped and planned their revenge on the Solomonids. During the Age of the Ajuuraans, the sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia, Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. Vasco Da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its centre and many mosques with cylindrical minarets. In the 1500s, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbaso also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt and Syria), together with Merca and Barawa also served as transit stops for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa. Jewish merchants from the Hormuz brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood, Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade. Giraffes, zebras and incense were exported to the Ming Empire of China, which established Somali merchants as leaders in the commerce between the Asia and Africa and influenced the Chinese language with the Somali language in the process. Hindu merchants from Surat and Southeast African merchants from Pate, seeking to bypass both the Portuguese blockade and Omani meddling, used the Somali ports of Merca and Barawa (which were out of the two powers' jurisdiction) to conduct their trade in safety and without interference.
Early modern & the Scramble for AfricaEdit
In the early modern period, successor states of the Adal and Ajuuraan empires began to flourish in Somalia. These were the Gerad Dynasty, the Bari Dynasties and the Gobroon Dynasty. They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires. Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, the third Sultan of the House of Gobroon, started the Golden age of the Gobroon Dynasty. His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade. He also received presents and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant Kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans. Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast. In northern Somalia, the Gerad Dynasty conducted trade with Yemen and Persia and competed with the merchants of the Bari Dynasty. The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces, castles and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.In the late 19th century, after the Berlin conference, European powers began the Scramble for Africa, which inspired the Dervish leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever. In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British infidels "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation. He soon emerged as "a champion of his country's political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders." Hassan issued a religious ordinance that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered as kafir or gaal. He soon acquired weapons from Turkey, Sudan, and other Islamic and/or Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia. In addition, Hassan gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his follower-warriors. His 'Dervish' movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish state was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood. It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he committed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1500 Dervish equipped with 20 modem rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region. He repulsed the British in 4 expeditions and had relations with the central powers of the Ottomans and the Germans. In 1920, the Dervish state collapsed after intensive arial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate. The dawn of fascism in the early 1920s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy. With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December 1923, things began to change for that part of Somaliland. Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory. Fascist Italy, under Benito Mussolini, attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935, with an aim to colonize it. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. On August 3, 1940, Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland, and by August 14, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British. A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January 1941 from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland. By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. The British Empire forces operating in Somaliland comprised three divisions of South African, West and East African troops. They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans prominently participating.
The State of SomaliaEdit
- Main article: Greater Somalia
Following World War II, although Somalis aided the Allied powers in their struggle against the Axis powers, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates. In November 1949, the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) (which later became Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL), that were then agitating for independence—that Somalia achieve independence within ten years. British Somaliland remained a protectorate of Britain until 1960.
Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis, the British "returned" the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably 'protected' by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against plundering by Somali clans. Britain included the proviso that the Somali nomads would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over them. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over. Britain also granted administration of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited Northern Frontier District to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly-formed Somali Republic.
A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizeable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. However, the majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977 and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a French-groomed Somali who campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as Djibouti's first president (1977–1991).
British Somaliland became independent on June 26, 1960, and the former Italian Somaliland followed suit five days later. On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain. A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967–1969). On July 20, 1961 and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.
However, inter-clan rivalry persisted with many clans claiming to have been forced into the state of Somalia. In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, appointed by Shermarke (Egal was later to become President of the breakaway independent Somaliland).
In late 1969 following the assassination of President Shermarke, a military government assumed power in a coup d'état led by Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, General Siad Barre and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Barre became President and Korshel vice-president. The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programmes and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate from 5% to 55% by the mid-1980s.However, struggles continued during Barre's rule. At one point he assassinated a major figure in his cabinet, Major General Gabiere, and two other officials.
It was in July 1976 when the real dictatorship of the Somali military commenced with the founding of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS). This party ruled Somalia until the fall of the military government in December 1990–January 1991. It was violently overthrown by the combined armed revolt of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM), and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG).
The Ogaden WarEdit
In 1977 and 1978, Somalia attacked its neighbour Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, in which Somalia aimed to unite the Somali lands that had been partitioned by the former colonial powers, and to win the right of self-determination for ethnic Somalis in those territories. Somalia first engaged Kenya and Ethiopia diplomatically, but this failed. Somalia, already preparing for war, created the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF, then called the Western Somali Liberation Front, WSLF) and eventually sought to capture Ogaden. Somalia acted unilaterally without consulting the international community, which was generally opposed to redrawing colonial boundaries, while the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries refused to help Somalia, and instead, backed Communist Ethiopia. Still the USSR, finding itself supplying both sides of a war, attempted to mediate a ceasefire. In general, due to America's opposition to the communist government of Ethiopia, it sold a lot of modern weapons to the Somalia government. Egypt sent millions of dollars in arms to Somalia, established military training and sent experts to Somalia due to Egypt's longstanding policy of securing the Nile River flow by destabilising for most of the war, Somalia appeared to be winning in most of Ogaden, but when Somali forces failed to capture Harer, Soviet and Cuban forces and weapons came to the aid of Ethiopia. The Somali Army was decimated and Somalia sought the help of the United States. Although the Carter Administration had expressed interest in helping Somalia, it later declined, as did American allies in the Middle East and Asia.
The Somali Civil WarEdit
- Main article: Somali Civil War
By 1978, the moral authority of the Somali government had collapsed. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship and the regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly totalitarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War.
During 1990, in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four. Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta, (ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time), to five U.S. dollars per kilogram. The price of khat, imported daily from Kenya, was also five U.S. dollars per standard bunch. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals. Coins were scattered on the ground throughout the city being too low in value to be used. A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange. At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. The generators used to provide electricity to the city had been sold off by the government. Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency and access to it was restricted to official banks, or one of three government-operated hotels. Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned. During the day in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare. Late-night operations by government authorities, however, included 'disappearances' of individuals from their homes.
1991 saw great changes in Somalia. President Barre was ousted by combined northern and southern clan-based forces all of whom were backed and armed by Ethiopia. And following a meeting of the Somali National Movement and northern clans' elders, the northern former British portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland in May 1991; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognised by any foreign government.
In January 1991, President Ali Mahdi Muhammad was selected by the manifesto group as an interim state president until a conference between all stakeholders to be held in Djibouti the following month to select a national leader. However, United Somali Congress military leader General Mohamed Farrah Aidid, the Somali National Movement leader Abdirahman Toor and the Somali Patriotic Movement leader Col Jess refused to recognize Mahdi as president. This caused a split between the SNM, USC and SPM and the armed groups Manifesto, Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) and Somali National Alliance (SNA) on the one hand and within the USC forces. This led efforts to remove Barre who still claimed to be the legitimate president of Somalia. He and his armed supporters remained in the south of the country until mid 1992, causing further escalation in violence, especially in the Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Lower Juba, and Middle Juba regions. The armed conflict within the USC devastated the Mogadishu area.
The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in southern Somalia. The basis of most of the conflicts was clan allegiances and competition for resources between the warring clans. James Bishop, the United States last ambassador to Somalia, explained that there is "competition for water, pasturage, and... cattle. It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers... Now it is fought out with AK-47s." The resulting famine caused the United Nations Security Council in 1992 to authorise the limited peacekeeping operation United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I). UNOSOM's use of force was limited to self-defence and it was soon disregarded by the warring factions. In reaction to the continued violence and the humanitarian disaster, the United States organised a military coalition with the purpose of creating a secure environment in southern Somalia for the conduct of humanitarian operations. This coalition, (Unified Task Force or UNITAF) entered Somalia in December 1992 on Operation Restore Hope and was successful in restoring order and alleviating the famine. In May 1993, most of the United States troops withdrew and UNITAF was replaced by the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II). However, Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June 1993 his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, (see Somalia (March 1992 to February 1996)) in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties. Fighting escalated until 18 American troops and more than 1,000 Somalis were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October 1993. The UN withdrew Operation United Shield in 3 March 1995, having suffered significant casualties, and with the rule of government still not restored. In June 1996, Mohamed Farrah Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
- Main article: Politics of Somalia
Following the civil war the Harti and Tanade clans declared a self-governing state in the northeast, which took the name Puntland, but maintained that it would participate in any Somali reconciliation to form a new central government. Then in 2002, Southwestern Somalia, comprising Bay, Bakool, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Juba), Gedo, Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabele) and Jubbada Hoose (Lower Juba) regions of Somalia declared itself autonomous. Although initially the instigators of this, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, which had been established in 1995, was only in full control of Bay, Bakool and parts of Gedo and Jubbada Dhexe, they quickly established the de facto autonomy of Southwestern Somalia. Although conflict between Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud and his two deputies weakened the Rahanweyn militarily from February 2006, the Southwest became central to the TFG based in the city of Baidoa. Shatigadud became Finance Minister, his first deputy Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe became Parliamentary Speaker and his second deputy Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade became Minister of Transport. Shatigadud also held the Chairmanship of the Rahanwein Traditional Elders' Court.
In 2004, the TFG met in Nairobi, Kenya and published a charter for the government of the nation. The TFG capital is presently in Baidoa. Meanwhile Somalia was one of the many countries affected by the tsunami which struck the Indian Ocean coast following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying entire villages and killing an estimated 300 people. In 2006, Somalia was deluged by torrential rains and flooding that struck the entire Horn of Africa affecting 350,000 people. The inter-clan rivalry continued in 2006 with the declaration of regional autonomy by the state of Jubaland, consisting of parts of Gedo, Jubbada Dhexe, and the whole of Jubbada Hoose. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, chairman of the Juba Valley Alliance, who comes from Galguduud in central Somalia is the most powerful leader there. Like Puntland this regional government did not want full statehood, but some sort of federal autonomy.
Conflict broke out again in early 2006 between an alliance of Mogadishu warlords known as the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (or "ARPCT") and a militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union (or "I.C.U."), seeking to institute Sharia law in Somalia. Social law changes, such as the forbidding of chewing khat, were part of moves by the ICU to change behaviours and impose strict social morals. It was widely reported that soccer playing was being banned, as well as viewing of broadcasts of soccer games, but there were also reports of the ICU itself denying any such bans. The Islamic Courts Union was led by Sheikh Sharif Ahmed. When asked if the ICU plans to extend its control to the rest of Somalia, Sheikh Ahmed responded in an interview: "Land is not our priority. Our priority is the people's peace, dignity and that they could live in liberty, that they could decide their own fate. That is our priority. Our priority is not land; the people are important to us."
Several hundred people, mostly civilians caught in the crossfire, died during this conflict. Mogadishu residents described it as the worst fighting in more than a decade. The Islamic Courts Union accused the U.S. of funding the warlords through the Central Intelligence Agency and supplying them with arms in an effort to prevent the Islamic Courts Union from gaining power. The United States Department of State, while neither admitting nor denying this, said the U.S. had taken no action that violated the international arms embargo of Somalia. A few e-mails describing covert illegal operations by private military companies in breach of U.N. regulations have been reported by the UK Sunday newspaper The Observer. By early June 2006 the Islamic Militia had control of Mogadishu, following the Second Battle of Mogadishu, and the last A.R.P.C.T. stronghold in southern Somalia, the town of Jowhar, then fell with little resistance. The remaining A.R.P.C.T. forces fled to the east or across the border into Ethiopia and the alliance effectively collapsed.
The Ethiopian-supported Transitional Government then called for intervention by a regional East African peacekeeping force. The I.C.U. meanwhile were fiercely opposed to foreign troops — particularly Ethiopians — in Somalia. claiming that Ethiopia, with its long history as an imperial power including the occupation of Ogaden, seeks to occupy Somalia, or rule it by proxy. Meanwhile the I.C.U. and their militia took control of much of the southern half of Somalia, normally through negotiation with local clan chiefs rather than by the use of force. However, the Islamic militia stayed clear of areas close to the Ethiopian border, which had become a place of refuge for many Somalis including the Transitional Government itself, headquartered in the town of Baidoa. Ethiopia said it would protect Baidoa if threatened. On September 25, 2006, the I.C.U. moved into the southern port of Kismayo, the last remaining port held by the transitional government. Ethiopian troops entered Somalia and seized the town of Buur Hakaba on October 9, and later that day the I.C.U. issued a declaration of war against Ethiopia.
On 1 November 2006, peace talks between the Transitional Government and the ICU broke down. The international community feared an all-out civil war, with Ethiopian and rival Eritrean forces backing opposing sides in the power-struggle. Fighting erupted once again on 21 December 2006 when the leader of ICU, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys said: "Somalia is in a state of war, and all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia", and heavy fighting broke out between the Islamic militia on one side and the Somali Transitional Government allied with Ethiopian forces on the other.
In late December 2006, Ethiopia launched airstrikes against Islamic troops and strong points across Somalia. Ethiopian Information Minister Berhan Hailu stated that targets included the town of Buurhakaba, near the Transitional Government base in Baidoa. An Ethiopian jet fighter strafed Mogadishu International Airport (now Aden Adde International Airport), without apparently causing serious damage but prompting the airport to be shut down. Other Ethiopian jet fighters attacked a military airport west of Mogadishu. Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi then announced that his country was waging war against the ICU to protect his country's sovereignty. "Ethiopian defence forces were forced to enter into war to the protect the sovereignty of the nation and to blunt repeated attacks by Islamic courts terrorists and anti-Ethiopian elements they are supporting," he said.
Days of heavy fighting followed as Ethiopian and government troops backed by tanks and jets pushed against Islamic forces between Baidoa and Mogadishu. Both sides claimed to have inflicted hundreds of casualties, but the Islamic infantry and vehicle artillery were badly beaten and forced to retreat toward Mogadishu. On 28 December 2006, the allies entered Mogadishu after Islamic fighters fled the city. Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi declared that Mogadishu had been secured, after meeting with local clan leaders to discuss the peaceful hand-over of the city. Yet as of April 2008, the Transitional Federal Government and its Ethiopian allies still face frequent attacks from an Islamic insurgency.
The Islamists retreated south, towards their stronghold in Kismayo, fighting rearguard actions in several towns. They abandoned Kismayo, too, without a fight, claiming that their flight was a strategic withdrawal to avoid civilian casualties, and entrenched around the small town of Ras Kamboni, at the southernmost tip of Somalia and on the border with Kenya. In early January, the Ethiopians and the Somali government attacked, resulting in the Battle of Ras Kamboni, and capturing the Islamic positions and driving the surviving fighters into the hills and forests after several days of combat. On January 9, 2007, the United States openly intervened in Somalia by sending Lockheed AC-130 gunships to attack ICU positions in Ras Kamboni. Dozens were killed and by then the ICU were largely defeated. During 2007 and 2008, new Islamic militant groups organized, and continued to fight against transitional government Somali and Ethiopian official troops. They recovered effective control of large portions of the country. Ethiopian forces retreated in 2009. The ICU no longer exists as an organized political group.
On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen year conflict as his government had mandated to do. He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament, Aden "Madobe" Mohamed, would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government. On January 31, 2009, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was elected as president at the Kempinski hotel in Djibouti.
Former Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein of the Transitional Federal Government and Sharif Sheikh Ahmed signed a power sharing deal in Djibouti that was brokered by the United Nations. According to the deal, Ethiopian troops were to withdraw from Somalia, giving their bases to the transitional government, African Union (AU) peacekeepers and moderate Islamist groups led by the ARS. Following the Ethiopian withdrawal, the transitional government expanded its parliament to include the opposition and elected Sheikh Ahmed as its new president on January 31, 2009. Sheikh Ahmed then appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.
Regions and districtsEdit
- Main article: Regions of Somalia
Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which were in turn subdivided into districts. The regions are: Template:Columns
On a de facto basis, northern Somalia is now divided up among the quasi-independent states of Puntland, Somaliland, and Galmudug. The south is at least nominally controlled by the Transitional Federal Government, although it is in fact controlled by Islamist groups outside Baidoa and Mogadishu. Under the de facto arrangements there are now 27 regions.
Geography and ClimateEdit
Africa's easternmost country, Somalia has a land area of 637,540 square kilometers and occupies the tip of a region commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa (because of its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros's horn) . Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. Cal Madow is beautiful mountain range in the northeastern part of the country, extending from several kilometers west of the city of Bosaso to the northwest of Erigavo. The rugged east-west ranges of the Karkaar Mountains lie at varying distances from the Gulf of Aden coast. Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast. Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C to 30 °C (60–85 °F). The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu. The December-February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant. The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid. Template:Infobox Weather
The breadth of the AIDS pandemic has led to the idea in the West that the entire continent is ravaged by the disease. But Somalia — isolated for 14 years since the civil war began and populated by devout Muslims — has an infection rate of perhaps only 1.5 or 2 per cent of the adult population.
– Stephanie Nolan
With the collapse of the central government in 1991, the education system is now private. Primary schools have risen from 600 before the civil war to 1,172 schools today, with an increase of 28% in primary school enrollment over the last 3 years. In 2006, the autonomous Puntland region in the northeast was the second territory in Somalia after the Somaliland region to introduce free primary schools, with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration. In Mogadishu, Benadir University, the Somalia National University, Mogadishu University, Kismayo University, and University of Gedo are five of the eight functioning universities in southern Somalia that offer higher education. The Somali National University and all of its campuses in Lafole, SNU or Jaamacada Ummada, Medicine, and Gaheyr are presently too unsafe for holding classes in. In Puntland, higher education is provided by the Puntland State University and East Africa University. In Somaliland, it is provided by Amoud University, University of Hargeisa, Somaliland University of Technology and Burao University. Three Somali universities are currently ranked in the top 100 of Africa.
Qur'anic schools (also known as duqsi) are the basic system of religious instruction in Somalia. The Qur'anic system, which teaches the greatest number of students relative to the other education sub-sectors, is the only system accessible to nomadic Somalis compared to the urban Somalis who have easier access to education. In 1993, a survey by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was conducted in which it found, among other things, that about 40% of pupils in Qur'anic schools were girls.
- Main article: Economy of Somalia
Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population.
American and Chinese oil companies are also excited about the prospect of oil and other natural resources in Somalia. An oil group listed in Sydney, Range Resources, anticipates that the Puntland province in the north has the potential to produce 5 billion to 10 billion barrels of oil.
While millions of Somalis receive food aid, according to a study by the UNDP and the European Commission, it is estimated that as much as $1 billion USD is annually remitted to Somalia by Somalis in the diaspora via money transfer companies—far more than the amount of development funding flowing into the country.
- Main article: Communications in Somalia
Somalia's public telecommunications system has been almost completely destroyed or dismantled. However, private wireless companies thrive in most major cities and actually provide better services than in neighbouring countries. Wireless service and Internet cafés are available. Somalia was the last country in Africa to access the Internet in August 2000, with only 57 web sites known as of 2003. Internet usage in Somalia increased 44,900% from 2000 to 2007, registering the highest growth rate in Africa. Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates on the continent, with some companies charging less than a cent per minute. Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association.
Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 2% arable land. The civil war had a huge impact on the country’s tropical forests by facilitating the production of charcoal with ever-present, recurring, but damaging droughts. Environmentalist and Goldman Environmental Prize winner, Fatima Jibrell, became the first Somali to step in and undertake a much-needed effort to save the rest of the environment through local initiatives that organised local communities to protect the rural and coastal habitat. Jibrell trained a team of young people to organise awareness campaigns about the irreversible damage of unrestricted charcoal production. She also joined the Buran rural institute that formed and organised the Camel Caravan program in which young people loaded tents and equipment on camels to walk for three weeks through a nomadic locale, and educate the people about the careful use of fragile resources, health care, livestock management and peace.
Fatima Jibrell has consistently fought against the burning of charcoal, logging and other man-induced environmental degradation. Her efforts have born fruits to the local communities across Somalia and international recognition when she won the prestigious Environmental Goldman award from San Francisco. Jibrell is also the executive director of Horn Relief and Development Organisation.
Following the massive tsunami of December 2004, there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late 1980s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste. The huge waves which battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tonnes of nuclear and toxic waste that was illegally dumped in the country by several European firms. The European Green Party followed up these revelations by presenting before the press and the European Parliament in Strasbourg copies of contracts signed by two European companies—the Italian Swiss firm, Achair Partners, and an Italian waste broker, Progresso -- and representatives of the then "President" of Somalia, the faction leader Ali Mahdi Mohamed, to accept 10 million tonnes of toxic waste in exchange for $80 million (then about £60 million). According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobbio and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast—diseases consistent with radiation sickness. UNEP continues that the current situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.
- Main article: Demography of Somalia
Somalia has a population of around 10.7 million according to U.N. estimates in 2003, 85% of which constitute ethnic Somalis.
There is little reliable statistical information on urbanisation in Somalia. However, rough estimates have been made indicating an urbanization of 5% and 8% per annum with many towns rapidly growing into cities. Currently, 34% of the Somali population live in towns and cities with the percentage rapidly increasing.
Because of the civil war, the country has a large diaspora community, one of the largest of the whole continent. Millions of Somalis live abroad, and this excludes those who inhabit Yemen, northeastern Kenya, and Djibouti.
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- Main article: Languages of Somalia
Somali is the national language of the Somali people and is used virtually everywhere by almost all ethnic Somalis as well as a few minority groups. Minority languages do exist, such as Af-Maay, which is spoken in areas in South-Central Somalia mainly by the Rahanweyn. Variants of Swahili (Barawe) are also spoken along the coast by Arabs and some Bantus (Jareer).
Many Somalis speak Arabic due to close ties with the Arab World, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education. English is also widely used and taught. Italian used to be a major language but now because of the civil war and lack of education, it is most frequently heard among older generations.
- Main article: Islam in Somalia
Christianity's influence was significantly reduced in the 1970s when church-run schools were closed and missionaries sent home. There has been no Archbishop of the Catholic cathedral in the country since 1989; the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged in the civil war of January-February 1992.
The Somali constitution discourages the promotion and propagation of any religion other than Islam. This sets Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbours, many of whom are either Christians (particularly the Amhara and others of Ethiopia) or adherents of indigenous faiths.
- Main article: Culture of Somalia
- Main article: Somali cuisine
The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and encompasses different styles of cooking. One thing that unites the Somali food is its being Halal. Therefore, there are no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten, and no blood is incorporated. Somali people serve dinner as late as 9 pm. During Ramadan, dinner is often served after Tarawih prayers – sometimes as late as 11 pm. Cambuulo is one of Somalia's most popular dishes and is enjoyed throughout the country as a dinner meal. The dish is made out of well-cooked azuki beans, mixed with butter and sugar. The beans, which by themselves are referred to as digir, are often left on the stove for as many as five hours, on low heat, to achieve an optimal taste. Barriss (rice) and basto (pasta) are common foods, but have a unique flavor due to the seasoning and many spices added.
- Main article: Somali literature
Somalia produced a large amount of literature through Islamic poetry and Hadith from Somali scholars of the last centuries. With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1973 numerous Somali authors have released books over the years which received widespread success, Nuruddin Farah being one of them. Novels like From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements which earned him the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.
- Main article: Music of Somalia
Somalia has the distinction of being one of only a handful of African countries that are composed almost entirely of one ethnic group, the Somalis. Traditional bands like Waaberi and Horseed have gained a small following outside the country. Others, like Maryam Mursal, have fused Somali traditional music with rock, bossa nova, hip hop, and jazz influences. Most Somali music is love oriented.
Toronto, where a sizable Somali community exists, replaced Mogadishu (because of the instability) as the centre of the Somali music industry, which is also present in London, Minneapolis, and Columbus. One popular musician from the Somali diaspora is K'naan, a young rapper from Toronto, whose songs talk about the struggles of life in Somalia during the outbreak of the civil war.
- Adal Sultanate
- Anarchy in Somalia
- Borama script
- Communications in Somalia
- Foreign relations of Somalia
- Greater Somalia
- Land of Punt
- List of Somalis
- List of Somali companies
- List of Somalia-related topics
- Military of Somalia
- Osmanya script
- Piracy in Somalia
- Scouting in Somalia
- Somali people
- Sultanate of Mohamoud Ali Shire
- ↑ According to article 7 of The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic: The official languages of the Somali Republic shall be Somali (Maay and Maxaatiri) and Arabic. The second languages of the Transitional Federal Government shall be English and Italian.
- ↑ "Somalia" (HTML). World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009-05-14. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-31.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "Somalia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. July 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html#People.
- ↑ "Country profile: Somalia". BBC News. 18 June 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1072592.stm.
- ↑ Phoenicia pg 199
- ↑ The Aromatherapy Book by Jeanne Rose and John Hulburd pg 94
- ↑ Egypt: 3000 Years of Civilization Brought to Life By Christine El Mahdy
- ↑ Ancient perspectives on Egypt By Roger Matthews, Cornelia Roemer, University College, London.
- ↑ Africa's legacies of urbanization: unfolding saga of a continent By Stefan Goodwin
- ↑ Civilizations: Culture, Ambition, and the Transformation of Nature By Felipe Armesto Fernandez
- ↑ Man, God and Civilization pg 216
- ↑ Oman in history By Peter Vine Page 324
- ↑ Society, security, sovereignty and the state in Somalia - Page 116
- ↑ East Africa: Its Peoples and Resources - Page 18
- ↑ Shaping of Somali society Lee Cassanelli pg.92
- ↑ Futuh Al Habash Shibab ad Din
- ↑ Sudan Notes and Records - Page 147
- ↑ Politics, language, and thought: the Somali experience - Page 135
- ↑ Africa report pg 69
- ↑ Essentials of geography and development: concepts and processes By Don R. Hoy, Leonard Berry pg 305
- ↑ Encyclopedia of African history - Page 1406
- ↑ The modern history of Somaliland: from nation to state - Page 78
- ↑ Historical dictionary of Ethiopia - Page 405
- ↑ http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/anctoday/2007/text/at01.txt
- ↑ Superpower diplomacy in the Horn of Africa - Page 22
- ↑ http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25433&Cr=Somalia&Cr1=
- ↑ Prehistoric Implements from Somaliland by H. W. Seton-Karr pg 183
- ↑ The Missionary review of the world - Page 132
- ↑ Tyldesley, Hatchepsut, p.147
- ↑ Breasted 1906-07, p. 246-295, vol. 1.
- ↑ Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver
- ↑ Da Gama's First Voyage pg.88
- ↑ East Africa and its Invaders pg.38
- ↑ Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa pg.35
- ↑ The return of Cosmopolitan Capital:Globalization, the State and War pg.22
- ↑ The Arabian Seas: The Indian Ocean World of the Seventeenth Century By R. J. Barendse
- ↑ Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa pg.30
- ↑ Chinese Porcelain Marks from Coastal Sites in Kenya: aspects of trade in the Indian Ocean, XIV-XIX centuries. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1978 pg 2
- ↑ East Africa and its Invaders pg.37
- ↑ Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa pg.45
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106
- ↑ Gates, Henry Louis, Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, (Oxford University Press: 1999), p.1749
- ↑ Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia p. 68 New York, 1999.
- ↑ Federal Research Division, Somalia: A Country Study, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p.38
- ↑ Laitin, David D., Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience, (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.73
- ↑ Francis Vallat, First report on succession of states in respect of treaties: International Law Commission twenty-sixth session 6 May-26 July 1974, (United Nations: 1974), p.20
- ↑ David D. Laitin, Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience, (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.75
- ↑ Barrington, Lowell, After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p.115
- ↑ Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2002), p.835
- ↑ The beginning of the Somali nation after independenceScript error
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 "The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960". Buluugleey.com. http://www.buluugleey.com/warkiidanbe/Governance.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "The making of a Somalia state". Strategypage.com. 2006-08-09. http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htwin/articles/20060809.aspx. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "Aden Abdullah Osman the founding father". Mudulood.com. http://www.mudulood.com/PageAadan%20Cabdulle%20Cusman.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "The founding father of Somalia". Mudulood.com. http://www.mudulood.com/OpinionPage546.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "A tribute to the Somalia founding father, its president in 1960s". Markacadeey.com. 2007-06-09. http://www.markacadeey.com/june/aden_cadde_20070609_1.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p.338
- ↑ "The making of Somalia, Somaliland". Somalilandtimes.net. http://www.somalilandtimes.net/2003/139/13904.shtml. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "The beginning of the Somalia state". Radiobuuhoodle.com. 2005-08-12. http://www.radiobuuhoodle.com/goodgovernance.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "Historical self-governing clan factors in present day Somalia". http://media.maps.com/magellan/Images/SOMCLA-W2.gif. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12048.html
- ↑ "Somaliland citizens ask to be recognised as a state". BBC News. 2001-06-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1367554.stm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "Somaliland votes for independence". BBC News. 2001-05-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1361394.stm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Friday (2007-11-16). "It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers... Now it is fought out with AK-47s". Hprsite.squarespace.com. http://hprsite.squarespace.com/remember-somalia-112007/. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic". Somalia.cc. February 2004. http://www.somalia.cc/article_read.asp?item=6. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). iss.co.za. February 2004. http://www.iss.co.za/AF/profiles/Somalia/charterfeb04.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ Template:Cite press release
- ↑ "Regional court orders closure of khat kiosks". Garowe Online. 2006-11-22.
- ↑ Farah, Mohamed Abdi (2006-11-22). "Islamists put curfew on Bulo-Burde town after unrest". SomaliNet. http://somalinet.com/news/world/Somalia/5246. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ World Cup ban in Mogadishu denied BBC News
- ↑ Sheikh Sherif welcomes dialogue with Washington, ANN, 9 June 2006]
- ↑ Barnett, Antony; Patrick Smith (10 September 2006). "US accused of covert operations in Somalia". Observer. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/world/story/0,,1868920,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ Somali Islamists to ask AU to end peace force plan, Reuters, 9 September 2006.
- ↑ "Islamists seize Somalia port". CNN. 2006-09-25.
- ↑ Pflanz, Mike (2006-10-10). "Somalia Extremists Declare Jihad On Ethiopia". New York Sun, The Daily Telegraph. http://www.nysun.com/article/41275. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ Gollust, David (2 November 2006). "US Concerned Somalia Conflict Could Spread". Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/english/2006-11-02-voa65.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ "Carnage as Somalia 'in state of war'". CNN. 22 December 2006.
- ↑ "Ethiopia attacks Somalia airports". BBC. 2006-12-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6208549.stm. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ Gentleman, Jeffrey (2006-12-26). "Ethiopian Jets Strafe Mogadishu Airports". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/26/world/africa/26somalia.html?_r=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ Yare, Hassan (2006-12-24). "Ethiopia says forced into war with Somali Islamists". Yahoo!, Reuters.
- ↑ "Ethiopia declares war on Somalia". Al Jazeera. December 25, 2006.
- ↑ Mohamed Olad, Hassan (2006-12-28). "Somali troops enter Mogadishu to cheers". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2007-01-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070109102653/http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061228/ap_on_re_af/somalia. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ "Somalia's president quits office", BBC News, December 29, 2008.
- ↑ "Somali President Yusuf resigns", Reuters (FT.com), December 29, 2008.
- ↑ "Somalia swears in new president", Sapa-AFP (IOL), January 31, 2009.
- ↑ Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa
- ↑ In Somalia, isolation has kept AIDS at bay? Stephanie Nolan
- ↑ Ihebuzor, Noel (2005 01 31). "EC and UNICEF join hands to support education in Somalia". United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/VBOL-696HBA?OpenDocument. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
- ↑ Staff writer, Staff writer (2006 04 06). "Puntland (Somalia) to introduce free primary schools". Afrol News. http://www.afrol.com/articles/16083. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
- ↑ University of Pittsburgh
- ↑ "Exploration rights in Somalia for Chinese oil giant CNOOC". Oilmarketer.co.uk. http://www.oilmarketer.co.uk/2007/07/18/exploration-rights-in-somalia-for-chinese-oil-giant-cnooc/. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Somali Killings of Aid Workers Imperil Relief, New York Times, July 20, 2008
- ↑ Continuing to fail, Economist, July 3, 2008
- ↑ Somalia – no central government, but still functioning
- ↑ Landreville, Kristen (November 28, 2003). "Journalists online in Somalia". World Watch. http://www.kristenlandreville.com/2003_11_01_world-watch_archive.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ "Internet Usage Statistics for Africa". Internetworldstats.com. 2008-12-31. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm#africa. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Winter, Joseph (2004-11-19). "Telecoms thriving in lawless Somalia". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4020259.stm. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
- ↑ "Fatima Jibrell: Nursing Nature". Worldpress. July 2002. http://www.worldpress.org/Africa/597.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- ↑ "Somalia's secret dumps of toxic waste washed ashore by tsunami". Timesonline.co.uk. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article418665.ece. Retrieved on 2009-02-25.
- ↑ An Urban Development Programme for the European Commission in Somalia
- ↑ Middle East Policy Council - Muslim Populations Worldwide
- Hadden, Robert Lee. 2007. "The Geology of Somalia: A Selected Bibliography of Somalian Geology, Geography and Earth Science." Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Topographic Engineering Center, Alexandria, VA. Abstract: "This bibliography on the geology, geography, and other earth sciences of Somalia was initiated to fill a request for current information on that war-torn state. The bibliography brings together selected citations from a variety of different cartographic, geographical, geological, agricultural, transportation, hydrological, and other earth science resources. Sources include scientific societies, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, commercial databanks, and major research libraries."
- Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966. *Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia. New York: Nova Science, Inc., 2002.
- Lewis. I.M. Pastoral Democracy: A study on Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali clans. Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1958. ISBN 978-3825830847.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey. The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter Four: Somalia: A Stateless State - What Next?, pp. 109–132, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001.
- Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia. New York: St. Martin's P Inc., 1999.
Learning resources from Wikiversity
- General information
- Somalia entry at The World Factbook
- Somalia from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Somali Democratic Republic at the Open Directory Project
- Somali Democratic Republic travel guide from Wikitravel
- Somalia Online
- The Somali Link
- UNESCO Nairobi office on education in Somalia
- UNESCO Nairobi Office - Fact Book on Education For All, Somalia 2006
- Mustaqbalka Ummadda Somaaliyeed
- Bissig Addo map
af:Somalië als:Somalia am:ሶማሊያ ar:الصومال an:Somalia frp:Somalie ast:Somalia az:Somali bn:সোমালিয়া zh-min-nan:Somalia be:Самалі be-x-old:Самалі bo:སོ་མ་ལི bs:Somalija br:Somalia bg:Сомалия ca:Somàlia ceb:Somalia cs:Somálsko cy:Somalia da:Somalia pdc:Somaali de:Somalia dv:ސޯމާލިއާ et:Somaalia el:Σομαλία es:Somalia eo:Somalio eu:Somalia fa:سومالی fo:Somalia fr:Somalie fy:Somaalje ga:An tSomáil gv:Yn Tomaal gd:Somàilia gl:Somalia - Soomaaliya ko:소말리아 hy:Սոմալի hi:सोमालिया hsb:Somalija hr:Somalija io:Somalia ilo:Somalia bpy:সোমালিয়া id:Somalia ie:Somalia os:Сомали is:Sómalía it:Somalia he:סומליה jv:Somalia kn:ಸೊಮಾಲಿಯ pam:Somalia ka:სომალი kk:Сомалия kw:Somali sw:Somalia kg:Somalia ht:Somali ku:Somaliya la:Somalia lv:Somālija lb:Somalia lt:Somalis lij:Somalia ln:Somalia lmo:Sumalia hu:Szomália mk:Сомалија ml:സൊമാലിയ mr:सोमालिया arz:الصومال ms:Somalia mn:Сомали nah:Somallān nl:Somalië ja:ソマリア no:Somalia nn:Somalia nov:Somalia oc:Somalia uz:Somaliya ps:سوماليا pms:Somalia nds:Somalia pl:Somalia pt:Somália crh:Somaliya ro:Somalia rm:Somalia qu:Sumalya ru:Сомали sah:Сомалия se:Somália sm:Somalia sa:सोमालिया sc:Somàlia sq:Somalia scn:Somalia simple:Somalia sk:Somálsko sl:Somalija szl:Sůmalijo so:Soomaaliya sr:Сомалија sh:Somalija fi:Somalia sv:Somalia tl:Somalia ta:சோமாலியா te:సొమాలియా th:ประเทศโซมาเลีย ti:ሶማሊያ tg:Сумолӣ tr:Somali uk:Сомалі ur:صومالیہ ug:Somali vec:Somałia vi:Somalia vo:Somalän zh-classical:索馬里 war:Somalia wo:Somali wuu:索马里 ts:Somalia yi:סאמאליע yo:Somalia zh-yue:索馬里 diq:Somalya bat-smg:Suomalis zh:索马里